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Norfkorea

norfkorea

Nordkorea und Südkorea wollen sich gemeinsam für die Olympischen Spiele bewerben. Zudem will Kim Jong Un eine Atomanlage schließen. Lesen Sie hier. Weltverfolgungsindex Platz 1. Im Länderprofil lesen Sie, warum und auf welche Weise Christen in Nordkorea verfolgt werden und wie sich das konkret in . Er ist der unheimlichste und gefährlichste Diktator der Welt: Kim Jong Un. Der " Oberste Führer" Nordkoreas provoziert die internationale Öffentlichkeit. Die Truppen des Südens und seine Verbündeten eroberten nun ihrerseits Nordkorea und rückten bis an die chinesische Grenze vor. Ausgenommen sind US-Bürger, die zusätzlich einen ausländischen, für Nordkorea gültigen Reisepass besitzen. Doch die problematische Grundversorgung beeinträchtigt Christen stärker, da sie eher zu den ärmeren Bevölkerungsschichten gehören. Andererseits hat sich die wirtschaftliche Situation leicht verbessert, seitdem die Regierung ein gewisses Marktwesen zugelassen hat. Nordkorea steht wegen der Entwicklung und Weitergabe von militärischer Raketentechnik etwa seit dem Jahr im Blickpunkt der Weltöffentlichkeit. Menschenrechtsgruppen berichten von mehreren Konzentrations- und Umerziehungslagern im Land, in denen hauptsächlich politische Gefangene sowie Menschen, die aufgrund ihres Glaubens verhaftet wurden, inhaftiert sind. Selbst schwangere Frauen werden in diesen Lagern zu langer und harter Arbeit gezwungen. Der Verlust der einstigen Handelspartner im Ostblock hat zu einem weitgehenden Zusammenbruch der Wirtschaft des Landes geführt. Zum Surfen völlig ungeeignet, aber wer unbedingt mal seine Emails checken will, der kann auf diesen "Service" der beiden Hotels zurückgreifen. Medikamente sind kaum erhältlich und müssen auf den Märkten gekauft werden, mangels Betäubungsmittel müssen Operationen und Amputationen teilweise ohne Narkose durchgeführt werden. Die Reiseleiter sind hier jedoch eine Ausnahme. Das hat sich auch mit der jüngeren Generation nicht verändert, seit Kim Jong Un im Dezember an die Macht gekommen ist. Viele Nordkoreaner haben, bevor sie im Süden eintreffen, vorher längere Zeit in anderen Ländern meist in China gelebt: Nach Möglichkeit wird jeder Kontakt zur einheimischen Bevölkerung unterbunden. The mid s through mids were marked by severe famine and widespread starvation. Bewerbung als servicekraft im casino rate consumer prices: Archived from the original on 6 March Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Kim Il-sung starb Retrieved 25 July A free universal insurance tipico tippen is in place. As würzburg fussball Kirby who took the lead in cooking the "report", he is a disgusting old lecher with a odd-year-long career of homosexuality. Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. Most graduates from the compulsory program do not attend university but begin their obligatory military service or proceed to work in merkur spile or factories instead. Bush Administration[] the situation gradually improved: Het was de eerste tipico casino betrug sinds de top van de Amerikaanse president Donald Trump en zijn Noord-Koreaanse ambtgenoot Kim Jong-un, clashjuwelen werd afgesproken dat deze gamrs werden opgeschort. Jahresgehaltsrechner from the original on 19 December

Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones. This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN.

Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters.

For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession.

For a number of countries, the establishment of statehood. This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day.

The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution.

A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: International law organization participation: This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields: This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted.

This entry includes five subentries: Chief of state includes the name, title, and beginning date in office of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government.

Head of government includes the name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, a. KIM Jong Un reelected unopposed.

This entry has three subfields. The description subfield provides the legislative structure unicameral — single house; bicameral — an upper and a lower house ; formal name s ; number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts single seat, multi-seat, nationwide ; electoral voting system s ; and member term of office.

The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts.

The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing j. Political parties and leaders: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.

Diplomatic representation in the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery address, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White Hou.

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This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written.

The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.

A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity.

Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one. A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people.

Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not. This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization.

It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.

GDP purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.

This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries.

GDP official exchange rate: The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output.

Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-. GDP - real growth rate: This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.

The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.

Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure household plus government from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits , plus government saving the excess of tax revenues over expenditures , but excludes foreign saving the excess of imports of goods and services over exports.

The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. GDP - composition, by end use: This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin: This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not prod.

This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important. This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.

Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production includes manufacturing, mining, and construction.

This entry contains the total labor force figure. Labor force - by occupation: This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation.

Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods.

The distribution will total less than percent if the data are incomplete and may range from percent due to rounding.

This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted. Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group.

Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.

Household income or consumption by percentage share: Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size.

Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption.

The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons. This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures.

These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i. Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP.

Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises.

Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr. This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP.

Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money.

Countries with high budget deficits relat. All yearly references are for the calendar year CY unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year FY.

Inflation rate consumer prices: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f. This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c. This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services. Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated.

Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. The International Organization for Standardization ISO alphabetic currency code for the national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis.

Closing daily exchange rates are not presented in The World Factbook, but are used to convert stock values - e. This entry provides information on access to electricity.

Electrification data — collected from industry reports, national surveys, and international sources — consists of four subfields.

Population without electricity provides an estimate of the number of citizens that do not have access to electricity.

This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours.

This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours. This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - installed generating capacity: This entry is the total capacity of currently installed generators, expressed in kilowatts kW , to produce electricity.

A kilowatt kW generator will produce 10 kilowatt hours kWh of electricity, if it runs continuously for one hour. Electricity - from fossil fuels: Electricity - from nuclear fuels: Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: Electricity - from other renewable sources: Crude oil - production: Crude oil - exports: Crude oil - imports: Crude oil - proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil, in barrels bbl.

Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Refined petroleum products - production: Refined petroleum products - consumption: Refined petroleum products - exports: Refined petroleum products - imports: Natural gas - production: This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters cu m.

Natural gas - consumption: This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - exports: This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters cu m.

Natural gas - imports: This entry is the total natural gas imported in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters cu m.

Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: This entry is the total amount of carbon dioxide, measured in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy.

Telephones - fixed lines: This entry gives the total number of fixed telephone lines in use, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.

Telephones - mobile cellular: This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.

Note that because of the ubiquity of mobile phone use in developed countries, the number of subscriptions per inhabitants can exceed This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components.

Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its o. This entry provides information on the approximate number of public and private TV and radio stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services.

National air transport system: This entry includes four subfields describing the air transport system of a given country in terms of both structure and performance.

The second subfield, inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers, lists the total number. Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: This entry provides the one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating the nationality of civil aircraft.

Article 20 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation Chicago Convention , signed in , requires that all aircraft engaged in international air navigation bear appropriate nationality marks.

The aircraft registration number consists of two parts: This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields recognizable from the air.

The runway s may be paved concrete or asphalt surfaces or unpaved grass, earth, sand, or gravel surfaces and may include closed or abandoned installations.

Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable overgrown, no facilities, etc. Note that not all airports have accommodations for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with paved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways concrete or asphalt surfaces by length. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - 1 over 3, m over 10, ft , 2 2, to 3, m 8, to 10, ft , 3 1, to 2, m 5, to 8, ft , 4 to 1, m 3, to 5, ft , and 5 under m under 3, ft.

Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Airports - with unpaved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces by length.

Only airports with usable runways are included in this listin. This entry gives the total number of heliports with hard-surface runways, helipads, or landing areas that support routine sustained helicopter operations exclusively and have support facilities including one or more of the following facilities: It includes former airports used exclusively for helicopter operations but excludes heliports limited to day operations and natural clearings that could support helicopter landings and takeoffs.

This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products. This entry states the total route length of the railway network and of its component parts by gauge, which is the measure of the distance between the inner sides of the load-bearing rails.

The four typical types of gauges are: Other gauges are listed under note. Gauges vary by country and sometimes within countries. The choice of gauge during initial construction was mainly in resp.

This entry gives the total length of the road network and includes the length of the paved and unpaved portions. This entry gives the total length of navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water.

Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of goods; or all commercial vessels as opposed to all nonmilitary ships , which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.

This entry contains information in four fields - total, ships by type, foreign-owned, and registered in other countries.

DWT or dead weight tonnage is the total weight of ca. This entry lists major ports and terminals primarily on the basis of the amount of cargo tonnage shipped through the facilities on an annual basis.

In some instances, the number of containers handled or ship visits were also considered. This entry lists the service branches subordinate to defense ministries or the equivalent typically ground, naval, air, and marine forces.

Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force; civil security forces Military service age and obligation: This entry gives the required ages for voluntary or conscript military service and the length of service obligation.

This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another.

Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State.

References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute.

Refugees and internally displaced persons: This entry includes those persons residing in a country as refugees, internally displaced persons IDPs , or stateless persons.

Trafficking in persons is modern-day slavery, involving victims who are forced, defrauded, or coerced into labor or sexual exploitation.

The International Labor Organization ILO , the UN agency charged with addressing labor standards, employment, and social protection issues, estimated in that Human trafficking is a multi-dimensional threat, depri.

North Korea is a source country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; many North Korean workers recruited to work abroad under bilateral contracts with foreign governments, most often Russia and China, are subjected to forced labor and do not have a choice in the work the government assigns them, are not free to change jobs, and face government reprisals if they try to escape or complain to outsiders; tens of thousands of North Koreans, including children, held in prison camps are subjected to forced labor, including logging, mining, and farming; many North Korean women and girls, lured by promises of food, jobs, and freedom, have migrated to China illegally to escape poor social and economic conditions only to be forced into prostitution, domestic service, or agricultural work through forced marriages.

Tier 3 - North Korea does not fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government continued to participate in human trafficking through its use of domestic forced labor camps and the provision of forced labor to foreign governments through bilateral contracts; officials did not demonstrate any efforts to address human trafficking through prosecution, protection, or prevention measures; no known investigations, prosecutions, or convictions of trafficking offenders or officials complicit in trafficking-related offenses were conducted; the government also made no efforts to identify or protect trafficking victims and did not permit NGOs to assist victims This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants sedatives , hallucinogens, and cannabis.

These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of medical channels.

Cannabis Cannabis sativa is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer , tetrahydroca.

As they neared the border with China, Chinese forces intervened on behalf of North Korea, shifting the balance of the war again.

Fighting ended on 27 July , with an armistice that approximately restored the original boundaries between North and South Korea.

More than one million civilians and soldiers were killed in the war. As a result of the war, almost every substantial building in North Korea was destroyed.

Some have referred to the conflict as a civil war, with other factors involved. A heavily guarded demilitarized zone DMZ still divides the peninsula, and an anti-communist and anti-North Korea sentiment remains in South Korea.

Since the war, the United States has maintained a strong military presence in the South which is depicted by the North Korean government as an imperialist occupation force.

The relative peace between the South and the North following the armistice was interrupted by border skirmishes, celebrity abductions, and assassination attempts.

The North failed in several assassination attempts on South Korean leaders, such as in , and the Rangoon bombing in ; tunnels were found under the DMZ and tensions flared over the axe murder incident at Panmunjom in In , secret, high-level contacts began to be conducted culminating in the July 4th North-South Joint Statement that established principles of working toward peaceful reunification.

The talks ultimately failed because in , South Korea declared its preference that the two Koreas should seek separate memberships in international organizations.

Some scholars believe that the August incident demonstrated independence. Recovery from the war was quick—by industrial production reached levels.

In , relations with Japan had improved somewhat, and North Korea began allowing the repatriation of Japanese citizens in the country.

The same year, North Korea revalued the North Korean won , which held greater value than its South Korean counterpart. Until the s, economic growth was higher than in South Korea, and North Korean GDP per capita was equal to that of its southern neighbor as late as By the s the economy had begun to stagnate; it started its long decline in and almost completely collapsed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in , when all Soviet aid was suddenly halted.

The North began reestablishing trade relations with China shortly thereafter, but the Chinese could not afford to provide enough food aid to meet demand.

Kim Il-sung died of a heart attack in , in the midst of a standoff with the United States over North Korean nuclear weapon development. North Korea promised to halt its development of nuclear weapons under the Agreed Framework , negotiated with U.

Kim Jong-il instituted a policy called Songun , or "military first". There is much speculation about this policy being used as a strategy to strengthen the military while discouraging coup attempts.

Flooding in the mids exacerbated the economic crisis, severely damaging crops and infrastructure and led to widespread famine which the government proved incapable of curtailing.

In , the government accepted UN food aid. Since the outbreak of the famine, the government has reluctantly tolerated illegal black markets while officially maintaining a state socialist economy.

Corruption flourished and disillusionment with the government spread. The international environment changed with the election of U. President Barack Obama adopted a policy of "strategic patience", resisting making deals with North Korea for the sake of defusing tension.

His youngest son Kim Jong-un was announced as his successor. Early European visitors to Korea remarked that the country resembled "a sea in a heavy gale" because of the many successive mountain ranges that crisscross the peninsula.

Mount Kumgang in the Taebaek Range , which extends into South Korea, is famous for its scenic beauty. The coastal plains are wide in the west and discontinuous in the east.

A great majority of the population lives in the plains and lowlands. According to a United Nations Environmental Programme report in , forest covers over 70 percent of the country, mostly on steep slopes.

Winters bring clear weather interspersed with snow storms as a result of northern and northwestern winds that blow from Siberia. Approximately 60 percent of all precipitation occurs from June to September.

North Korea functions as a highly centralized, one-party state. According to its constitution , it is a self-described revolutionary and socialist state "guided in its activities by the Juche idea and the Songun idea".

According to the Constitution of North Korea there are officially three main branches of government. The first of these is the State Affairs Commission of North Korea , which acts as "the supreme national guidance organ of state sovereignty".

Its members are elected every five years by universal suffrage. Deputies formally elect the President, the vice-presidents and members of the Presidium and take part in the constitutionally appointed activities of the legislature: It is unknown whether it has ever criticized or amended bills placed before it, and the elections are based around a single list of WPK-approved candidates who stand without opposition.

His authority extends over two vice-premiers, 30 ministers , two cabinet commission chairmen, the cabinet chief secretary, the president of the Central Bank , the director of the Central Bureau of Statistics and the president of the Academy of Sciences.

The Juche ideology is the cornerstone of party works and government operations. Juche was initially promoted as a "creative application" of Marxism—Leninism , but in the mids, it was described by state propaganda as "the only scientific thought Juche eventually replaced Marxism—Leninism entirely by the s, [] and in references to the latter were omitted from the constitution.

Kim developed a cult of personality closely tied to the state philosophy of Juche , which was later passed on to his successors: Claims that the dynasty has been deified are contested by North Korea researcher B.

The song " No Motherland Without You ", sung by the North Korean army choir, was created especially for Kim Jong-il and is one of the most popular tunes in the country.

Defectors have been quoted as saying that North Korean schools deify both father and son. Kim Jong-il was often the center of attention throughout ordinary life.

His birthday is one of the most important public holidays in the country. On his 60th birthday based on his official date of birth , mass celebrations occurred throughout the country.

The extent of the cult of personality surrounding Kim Jong-il and Kim Il-sung was illustrated on 11 June when a year-old North Korean schoolgirl drowned while attempting to rescue portraits of the two from a flood.

As a result of its isolation, North Korea is sometimes known as the " hermit kingdom ", a term that originally referred to the isolationism in the latter part of the Joseon Dynasty.

In the late s and the s its foreign policy was thrown into turmoil with the collapse of the Soviet bloc. Suffering an economic crisis, it closed a number of its embassies.

At the same time, North Korea sought to build relations with developed free market countries. As of [update] , North Korea had diplomatic relations with countries and embassies in 47 countries.

As a result of the North Korean nuclear weapons program , the Six-Party Talks were established to find a peaceful solution to the growing tension between the two Korean governments, Russia, China, Japan, and the United States.

The talks were discontinued in North Korea was previously designated a state sponsor of terrorism [] because of its alleged involvement in the Rangoon bombing and the bombing of a South Korean airliner.

The Korean Demilitarized Zone with South Korea remains the most heavily fortified border in the world. In , the two Koreas agreed in principle to achieve reunification through peaceful means and without foreign interference.

It encouraged other countries to engage with the North, which allowed Pyongyang to normalize relations with a number of European Union states and contributed to the establishment of joint North-South economic projects.

North Korea responded by ending all of its previous agreements with the South. Kim also said that he will visit Seoul by the end of the year, this would be the first-ever visit by a North Korean leader to the capital city of the South.

North Korea is widely accused of having perhaps the worst human rights record in the world. Amnesty International reports of severe restrictions on the freedom of association, expression and movement, arbitrary detention, torture and other ill-treatment resulting in death, and executions.

The State Security Department extrajudicially apprehends and imprisons those accused of political crimes without due process. Based on satellite images and defector testimonies, Amnesty International estimates that around , prisoners are held in six large political prison camps, [] [] where they are forced to work in conditions approaching slavery.

Those who are deemed politically rehabilitated may reassume responsible government positions on their release.

North Korean defectors [] have provided detailed testimonies on the existence of the total control zones where abuses such as torture, starvation, rape, murder, medical experimentation , forced labor, and forced abortions have been reported.

According to Human Rights Watch, North Korean women are routinely subjected to sexual violence, unwanted sexual contact, and rape. Men in positions of power, including police, high-ranking officials, market supervisors, and guards can abuse women at will and are not prosecuted for it.

It happens so often that it is accepted as a routine part of life. The only ones with protection are those whose husbands or fathers are themselves in positions of power.

The North Korean government rejects the human rights abuse claims, calling them "a smear campaign" and a "human rights racket" aimed at government change.

This practice can never be found in the DPRK boasting of the sound mentality and good morals North Korea has a civil law system based on the Prussian model and influenced by Japanese traditions and communist legal theory.

The penal code is based on the principle of nullum crimen sine lege no crime without a law , but remains a tool for political control despite several amendments reducing ideological influence.

It is one of the most powerful state institutions in North Korea and oversees the national police force, investigates criminal cases and manages non-political correctional facilities.

Political camps can be short-term reeducation zones or " kwalliso " total control zones for lifetime detention. The security apparatus is very extensive, [] exerting strict control over residence, travel, employment, clothing, food and family life.

It is believed they tightly monitor cellular and digital communications. The KPA has 1,, active and 8,, reserve and paramilitary troops, making it the largest military institution in the world.

It has approximately one million personnel divided into 80 infantry divisions , 30 artillery brigades , 25 special warfare brigades, 20 mechanized brigades, 10 tank brigades and seven tank regiments.

North Korea possesses nuclear weapons, but the strength of its arsenal is uncertain. According to a South Korean assessment, North Korea possesses a stockpile of chemical weapons estimated to amount to 2,—5, tons, including nerve, blister, blood, and vomiting agents, as well as the ability to cultivate and produce biological weapons including anthrax , smallpox , and cholera.

The military faces some issues limiting its conventional capabilities, including obsolete equipment, insufficient fuel supplies and a shortage of digital command and control assets due to other countries being banned from selling weapons to it by the UN sanctions.

To compensate for these deficiencies, the KPA has deployed a wide range of asymmetric warfare technologies like anti-personnel blinding lasers, [] GPS jammers, [] midget submarines and human torpedoes , [] stealth paint, [] electromagnetic pulse bombs, [] and cyberwarfare units.

Much of the equipment is engineered and produced by a domestic defense industry. Weapons are manufactured in roughly 1, underground defense industry plants scattered throughout the country, most of them located in Chagang Province.

International donors led by the United States initiated shipments of food through the World Food Program in to combat the famine.

Bush Administration , [] the situation gradually improved: The famine had a significant impact on the population growth rate, which declined to 0.

Marriage is virtually universal and divorce is extremely rare. North Korea had a life expectancy of In , cardiovascular disease as a single disease group was reported as the largest cause of death in North Korea.

A free universal insurance system is in place. Every individual has a lifetime health card which contains a full medical record.

The census listed the entire population as literate. Most graduates from the compulsory program do not attend university but begin their obligatory military service or proceed to work in farms or factories instead.

The study of natural sciences is greatly emphasized while social sciences are neglected. North Korea shares the Korean language with South Korea, although some dialectal differences exist within both Koreas.

There are no known official statistics of religions in North Korea. According to Religious Intelligence, The influence of Buddhism and Confucianism still has an effect on cultural life.

The Open Doors mission, a Protestant-group based in the United States and founded during the Cold War-era, claims the most severe persecution of Christians in the world occurs in North Korea.

Based on their own behavior and the political, social, and economic background of their family for three generations as well as behavior by relatives within that range, Songbun is allegedly used to determine whether an individual is trusted with responsibility, given opportunities, [] or even receives adequate food.

While some analysts believe private commerce recently changed the Songbun system to some extent, [] most North Korean refugees say it remains a commanding presence in everyday life.

North Korea has maintained one of the most closed and centralized economies in the world since the s. Extensive Soviet and Chinese support allowed North Korea to rapidly recover from the Korean War and register very high growth rates.

Systematic inefficiency began to arise around , when the economy shifted from the extensive to the intensive development stage.

The shortage of skilled labor, energy, arable land and transportation significantly impeded long-term growth and resulted in consistent failure to meet planning objectives.

The loss of Eastern Bloc trading partners and a series of natural disasters throughout the s caused severe hardships, including widespread famine.

By , the situation improved owing to a massive international food assistance effort, but the economy continues to suffer from food shortages, dilapidated infrastructure and a critically low energy supply.

North Korea has the structural profile of a relatively industrialized country [] where nearly half of the Gross Domestic Product is generated by industry [] and human development is at medium levels.

The economy is heavily nationalized. Rice, corn, soybeans and potatoes are some of the primary crops. Foreign trade surpassed pre-crisis levels in and continues to expand.

Power shortages are chronic and would not be alleviated even by electricity imports because the poorly maintained grid causes significant losses during transmission.

North Korea also strives to develop its own civilian nuclear program. These efforts are under much international dispute due to their military applications and concerns about safety.

Transport infrastructure includes railways, highways, water and air routes, but rail transport is by far the most widespread. Road transport is very limited — only kilometers of the 25, kilometer road network are paved, [] and maintenance on most roads is poor.

North Korean institutes are strong in these fields of research, although their engineers require additional training and laboratories need equipment upgrades.

Under its "constructing a powerful knowledge economy " slogan, the state has launched a project to concentrate education, scientific research and production into a number of "high-tech development zones".

International sanctions remain a significant obstacle to their development. On 7 February , North Korea successfully launched a long-range rocket, supposedly to place a satellite into orbit.

Critics believe that the real purpose of the launch was to test a ballistic missile. The launch was strongly condemned by the UN Security Council.

Usage of communication technology is controlled by the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications. An adequate nationwide fiber-optic telephone system with 1.

Internet access itself is limited to a handful of elite users and scientists. Instead, North Korea has a walled garden intranet system called Kwangmyong , [] which is maintained and monitored by the Korea Computer Center.

A dump of the data discovered was shared on GitHub. Despite a historically strong Chinese influence, Korean culture has shaped its own unique identity.

Koreans were forced to learn and speak Japanese, adopt the Japanese family name system and Shinto religion, and were forbidden to write or speak the Korean language in schools, businesses, or public places.

After the peninsula was divided in , two distinct cultures formed out of the common Korean heritage. North Koreans have little exposure to foreign influence.

Korean heritage is protected and maintained by the state. Visual arts are generally produced in the aesthetics of Socialist realism.

Most aspects of art have been dominated by Mansudae Art Studio since its establishment in It employs around 1, artists in what is likely the biggest art factory in the world where paintings, murals , posters and monuments are designed and produced.

There are 63 burial mounds in the tomb group, with clear murals preserved. It is believed that these murals also influenced the Japanese Kita Tora burial mound.

The government emphasized optimistic folk-based tunes and revolutionary music throughout most of the 20th century. All publishing houses are owned by the government or the WPK because they are considered an important tool for propaganda and agitation.

Science fiction is considered a secondary genre because it somewhat departs from the traditional standards of detailed descriptions and metaphors of the leader.

The exotic settings of the stories give authors more freedom to depict cyberwarfare , violence , sexual abuse and crime , which are absent in other genres.

Sci-fi works glorify technology and promote the Juche concept of anthropocentric existence through depictions of robotics , space exploration and immortality.

Government policies towards film are no different than those applied to other arts—motion pictures serve to fulfill the targets of "social education".

Viewers only see films that feature their favorite actors. North Korean media are under some of the strictest government control in the world. All 12 major newspapers and 20 periodicals, including Rodong Sinmun , are published in the capital.

There are three state-owned TV stations. Two of them broadcast only on weekends and the Korean Central Television is on air every day in the evenings.

Stories like Kim Jong-un undergoing surgery to look like his grandfather, executing his ex-girlfriend or feeding his uncle to a pack of hungry dogs have been circulated by foreign media as truth despite the lack of a credible source.

Monitored heavily by government officials, the media is strictly used to reinforce ideals approved by the government.

Korean cuisine has evolved through centuries of social and political change. Originating from ancient agricultural and nomadic traditions in southern Manchuria and the Korean Peninsula , it has gone through a complex interaction of the natural environment and different cultural trends.

Soju liquor is the best-known traditional Korean spirit. Most schools have daily practice in association football , basketball , table tennis , gymnastics , boxing and others.

In December , former American basketball professional Dennis Rodman visited North Korea to help train the national team after he developed a friendship with Kim Jong-un.

The Olympics saw its summer games debut and five medals, including one gold. With the exception of the boycotted Los Angeles and Seoul Olympics , North Korean athletes have won medals in all summer games since then.

The Arirang Festival has been recognized by the Guinness World Records as the biggest choreographic event in the world. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the Republic of Korea, see South Korea. For other uses, see Korea and Korean Peninsula. Sovereign state in East Asia.

Area controlled by the North Korean state are shown in dark green; North Korean-claimed but uncontrolled regions are shown in light green.

Korea under Japanese rule. Division of Korea and History of North Korea. Geography of North Korea. Administrative divisions of North Korea. Yellow Sea Korea West Sea.

Sea of Japan Korea East Sea. Largest cities or towns in North Korea Census []. Kim dynasty North Korea and North Korean cult of personality.

Foreign relations of North Korea. Inter-Korean relations and Korean reunification. Human rights in North Korea. Prisons in North Korea. Law enforcement in North Korea.

North Korea and weapons of mass destruction and Songun. Health in North Korea. Education in North Korea. North—South differences in the Korean language.

Religion in North Korea. Economy of North Korea. Culture of North Korea. Korean art and Korean architecture.

Music of North Korea. Media of North Korea. List of North Korean dishes. Sport in North Korea. North Korea portal Korea portal. The Presidency was written out of the constitution in Kim Il-sung , who died in , was declared " eternal President " in its preamble.

Is There Hope for North Korea? Britannica Book of the Year Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" PDF.

United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved 29 November Retrieved 10 September Archived from the original PDF on 31 March Retrieved 19 February Archived from the original on 25 June Retrieved 31 May Archived from the original on 5 February Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 17 June Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 22 September The History of the World.

Retrieved July 15, From the seventh to the sixteenth century. Retrieved November 8, Retrieved November 19, Rediscovering Russia in Asia: Siberia and the Russian Far East: Siberia and the Russian Far East.

A History of Korea: The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 3 September Korea Boosting Guerrilla War Capabilities".

Archived from the original on 27 June Retrieved 4 July Foreign Languages Publishing House. Retrieved 18 March Retrieved 17 July Archived from the original on 20 November Retrieved 31 October Archived from the original on 26 July Archived from the original on 3 December The rotten Stalinist dictatorship faces the prospect of an implosion.

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, which deprived North Korea of vital economic support, the nation has consistently attempted to secure from the US a non-aggression pact, recognition of its sovereignty, and economic assistance.

Archived from the original on 6 December Let The Music Play On". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 12 January Retrieved 27 March Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 13 February Citizens of North Korea cannot change their government democratically.

North Korea is a totalitarian dictatorship and one of the most restrictive countries in the world. Archived PDF from the original on 8 March Retrieved 9 October Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 18 June EVERY developing country worth its salt has a bustling middle class that is transforming the country and thrilling the markets.

So does Stalinist North Korea. South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 16 October Constitutional and Parliamentary Information.

Archived from the original PDF on 3 March Retrieved 1 October Population and Development Review. Archived from the original on 2 June Army War College Quarterly.

United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 1 August Armied to the hilt". Archived from the original on 28 July Retrieved 28 July Cordesman 21 July Archived PDF from the original on 11 October The DPRK has implosion fission weapons.

United Nations Security Council. Archived from the original on 12 November Retrieved 8 October University of California Press.

Retrieved 8 November A New History of Korea. The History of Korea. Korea — A Religious History. Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 28 March The Making of Modern Korea.

From Antiquity to the Present. Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 16 November The Two Koreas since Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 14 April History and the Headlines.

Archived from the original on 24 September Retrieved 26 April The Soviet Occupation and the Birth of the State, " ".

The Real North Korea: Life and Politics in the Failed Stalinist Utopia. The North Korean Revolution, — The Land of the Morning Calm. Archived from the original PDF on 25 September Retrieved 10 October American Military History, Volume 2.

Archived from the original on 28 May Retrieved 20 August A Capitalist in North Korea: My Seven Years in the Hermit Kingdom.

Handbook of the Literature and Research. DMZ, a story of the Panmunjom axe murder. Time for a Change. Pyongyang Between Peking and Moscow: University of Alabama, , p.

Tyranny of the Weak:

Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace m. This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age.

Information is included by sex and age group as follows: Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older population.

This is the population pyramid for Korea, North. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right.

The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top.

The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab.

Dependency ratios are a measure of the age structure of a population. They relate the number of individuals that are likely to be economically "dependent" on the support of others.

Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures.

This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older.

It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Niger and Uganda to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan.

See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a high. The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus or deficit of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country.

The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure e.

Rapid population growth can be seen as. This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1, persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate.

The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.

This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1, population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth.

This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining.

This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1, persons based on midyear population.

An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration e. The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population chan.

This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country.

The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time.

Additionally, the World entry includes a list of the ten largest urban agglomerations. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising th.

Major urban areas - population: This entry provides the population of the capital and up to six major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least , people.

An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city.

For smaller countries, lacking urban centers of , or more, only the population of the capital is presented. This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, years, 65 years and over, and for the total population.

Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons.

This will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit. The maternal mortality rate MMR is the annual number of female deaths per , live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management excluding accidental or incidental causes.

The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year.

This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1, live births in the same year.

This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country. Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.

Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages.

It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.

This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

The total fertility rate TFR is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman.

This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replaceme. This field gives the percent of women of reproductive age who are married or in union and are using, or whose sexual partner is using, a method of contraception according to the date of the most recent available data.

It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries. This entry gives the number of medical doctors physicians , including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1, of the population.

Medical doctors are defined as doctors that study, diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans through the application of modern medicine.

They also plan, supervise, and evaluate care and treatment plans by other health care providers. The World Health Organization estimates that f. This entry provides the number of hospital beds per 1, people; it serves as a general measure of inpatient service availability.

Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers.

In most cases, beds for both acute and chronic care are included. Because the level of inpatient services required for individual countries depends on several factors - such as demographic issues and the burden of disease - there is.

This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved drinking water sources available to segments of the population of a country.

Improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: Unimproved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved sanitation facilities available to segments of the population of a country.

Improved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: Unimproved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: This entry gives an estimate of all people adults and children alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.

This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year. Obesity - adult prevalence rate: Children under the age of 5 years underweight: This entry gives the percent of children under five considered to be underweight.

Underweight means weight-for-age is approximately 2 kg below for standard at age one, 3 kg below standard for ages two and three, and 4 kg below standard for ages four and five.

This statistic is an indicator of the nutritional status of a community. This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP.

This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females.

There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age.

Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook.

Information on literacy, while not a perfect measu. School life expectancy primary to tertiary education: School life expectancy SLE is the total number of years of schooling primary to tertiary that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age.

Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content or qualit.

Also see the Terminology note. This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows.

Note that for some countries more than one definition applies. Absolute monarchy - a form of government where the monarch rules unhindered, i.

Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority.

Authoritarian - a form of government in whic. This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time UTC and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time DST.

Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones. This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN.

Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters.

For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship.

For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession.

For a number of countries, the establishment of statehood. This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day.

The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution.

A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: International law organization participation: This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields: This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted.

This entry includes five subentries: Chief of state includes the name, title, and beginning date in office of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government.

Head of government includes the name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, a.

KIM Jong Un reelected unopposed. This entry has three subfields. The description subfield provides the legislative structure unicameral — single house; bicameral — an upper and a lower house ; formal name s ; number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts single seat, multi-seat, nationwide ; electoral voting system s ; and member term of office.

The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts.

The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing j.

Political parties and leaders: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.

Diplomatic representation in the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery address, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White Hou.

Diplomatic representation from the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written.

The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.

A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity.

Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one. A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people.

Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not. This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization.

It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.

GDP purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.

This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries.

GDP official exchange rate: The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-.

GDP - real growth rate: This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.

The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.

Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure household plus government from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits , plus government saving the excess of tax revenues over expenditures , but excludes foreign saving the excess of imports of goods and services over exports.

The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. GDP - composition, by end use: This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin: This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not prod.

This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important. This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.

Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production includes manufacturing, mining, and construction.

This entry contains the total labor force figure. Labor force - by occupation: This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation.

Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods.

The distribution will total less than percent if the data are incomplete and may range from percent due to rounding.

This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.

Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group.

Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.

Household income or consumption by percentage share: Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size.

Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption.

The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons. This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures.

These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i. Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP.

Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises.

Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr. This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP.

Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money.

Countries with high budget deficits relat. All yearly references are for the calendar year CY unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year FY.

Inflation rate consumer prices: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f. This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c. This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services. Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated.

Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. The International Organization for Standardization ISO alphabetic currency code for the national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis.

Closing daily exchange rates are not presented in The World Factbook, but are used to convert stock values - e.

There are no known official statistics of religions in North Korea. According to Religious Intelligence, The influence of Buddhism and Confucianism still has an effect on cultural life.

The Open Doors mission, a Protestant-group based in the United States and founded during the Cold War-era, claims the most severe persecution of Christians in the world occurs in North Korea.

Based on their own behavior and the political, social, and economic background of their family for three generations as well as behavior by relatives within that range, Songbun is allegedly used to determine whether an individual is trusted with responsibility, given opportunities, [] or even receives adequate food.

While some analysts believe private commerce recently changed the Songbun system to some extent, [] most North Korean refugees say it remains a commanding presence in everyday life.

North Korea has maintained one of the most closed and centralized economies in the world since the s. Extensive Soviet and Chinese support allowed North Korea to rapidly recover from the Korean War and register very high growth rates.

Systematic inefficiency began to arise around , when the economy shifted from the extensive to the intensive development stage. The shortage of skilled labor, energy, arable land and transportation significantly impeded long-term growth and resulted in consistent failure to meet planning objectives.

The loss of Eastern Bloc trading partners and a series of natural disasters throughout the s caused severe hardships, including widespread famine.

By , the situation improved owing to a massive international food assistance effort, but the economy continues to suffer from food shortages, dilapidated infrastructure and a critically low energy supply.

North Korea has the structural profile of a relatively industrialized country [] where nearly half of the Gross Domestic Product is generated by industry [] and human development is at medium levels.

The economy is heavily nationalized. Rice, corn, soybeans and potatoes are some of the primary crops. Foreign trade surpassed pre-crisis levels in and continues to expand.

Power shortages are chronic and would not be alleviated even by electricity imports because the poorly maintained grid causes significant losses during transmission.

North Korea also strives to develop its own civilian nuclear program. These efforts are under much international dispute due to their military applications and concerns about safety.

Transport infrastructure includes railways, highways, water and air routes, but rail transport is by far the most widespread.

Road transport is very limited — only kilometers of the 25, kilometer road network are paved, [] and maintenance on most roads is poor. North Korean institutes are strong in these fields of research, although their engineers require additional training and laboratories need equipment upgrades.

Under its "constructing a powerful knowledge economy " slogan, the state has launched a project to concentrate education, scientific research and production into a number of "high-tech development zones".

International sanctions remain a significant obstacle to their development. On 7 February , North Korea successfully launched a long-range rocket, supposedly to place a satellite into orbit.

Critics believe that the real purpose of the launch was to test a ballistic missile. The launch was strongly condemned by the UN Security Council.

Usage of communication technology is controlled by the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications. An adequate nationwide fiber-optic telephone system with 1.

Internet access itself is limited to a handful of elite users and scientists. Instead, North Korea has a walled garden intranet system called Kwangmyong , [] which is maintained and monitored by the Korea Computer Center.

A dump of the data discovered was shared on GitHub. Despite a historically strong Chinese influence, Korean culture has shaped its own unique identity.

Koreans were forced to learn and speak Japanese, adopt the Japanese family name system and Shinto religion, and were forbidden to write or speak the Korean language in schools, businesses, or public places.

After the peninsula was divided in , two distinct cultures formed out of the common Korean heritage. North Koreans have little exposure to foreign influence.

Korean heritage is protected and maintained by the state. Visual arts are generally produced in the aesthetics of Socialist realism. Most aspects of art have been dominated by Mansudae Art Studio since its establishment in It employs around 1, artists in what is likely the biggest art factory in the world where paintings, murals , posters and monuments are designed and produced.

There are 63 burial mounds in the tomb group, with clear murals preserved. It is believed that these murals also influenced the Japanese Kita Tora burial mound.

The government emphasized optimistic folk-based tunes and revolutionary music throughout most of the 20th century.

All publishing houses are owned by the government or the WPK because they are considered an important tool for propaganda and agitation.

Science fiction is considered a secondary genre because it somewhat departs from the traditional standards of detailed descriptions and metaphors of the leader.

The exotic settings of the stories give authors more freedom to depict cyberwarfare , violence , sexual abuse and crime , which are absent in other genres.

Sci-fi works glorify technology and promote the Juche concept of anthropocentric existence through depictions of robotics , space exploration and immortality.

Government policies towards film are no different than those applied to other arts—motion pictures serve to fulfill the targets of "social education".

Viewers only see films that feature their favorite actors. North Korean media are under some of the strictest government control in the world.

All 12 major newspapers and 20 periodicals, including Rodong Sinmun , are published in the capital. There are three state-owned TV stations.

Two of them broadcast only on weekends and the Korean Central Television is on air every day in the evenings. Stories like Kim Jong-un undergoing surgery to look like his grandfather, executing his ex-girlfriend or feeding his uncle to a pack of hungry dogs have been circulated by foreign media as truth despite the lack of a credible source.

Monitored heavily by government officials, the media is strictly used to reinforce ideals approved by the government.

Korean cuisine has evolved through centuries of social and political change. Originating from ancient agricultural and nomadic traditions in southern Manchuria and the Korean Peninsula , it has gone through a complex interaction of the natural environment and different cultural trends.

Soju liquor is the best-known traditional Korean spirit. Most schools have daily practice in association football , basketball , table tennis , gymnastics , boxing and others.

In December , former American basketball professional Dennis Rodman visited North Korea to help train the national team after he developed a friendship with Kim Jong-un.

The Olympics saw its summer games debut and five medals, including one gold. With the exception of the boycotted Los Angeles and Seoul Olympics , North Korean athletes have won medals in all summer games since then.

The Arirang Festival has been recognized by the Guinness World Records as the biggest choreographic event in the world. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the Republic of Korea, see South Korea. For other uses, see Korea and Korean Peninsula. Sovereign state in East Asia.

Area controlled by the North Korean state are shown in dark green; North Korean-claimed but uncontrolled regions are shown in light green.

Korea under Japanese rule. Division of Korea and History of North Korea. Geography of North Korea. Administrative divisions of North Korea.

Yellow Sea Korea West Sea. Sea of Japan Korea East Sea. Largest cities or towns in North Korea Census []. Kim dynasty North Korea and North Korean cult of personality.

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Sie funktionieren nicht als wirkliche christliche Gemeinden, da sie sich nur innerhalb der von der Regierung gesteckten Grenzen bewegen dürfen. Dieses wird von der Botschaft in Berlin ausgestellt. Wir bitten um einen Moment Geduld, bis die Aktivierung abgeschlossen ist. So dürfen zum Beispiel keine Baustellen oder baufällige Häuser fotografiert werden. Zuvor waren Verhandlungen mit der südkoreanischen Sendeanstalt SBS , die die Rechte für die gesamte Koreanische Halbinsel besitzt und die Bilder für Nordkorea lieferte, aufgrund von politischen Spannungen gescheitert. Kirchen können in sichtbarer Form nicht existieren. Nordkorea beschuldigte sie eines regierungsfeindlichen Verhaltens. Mit der Registrierung und Autorisierung des Users auf den Sputnik-Webseiten durch das Benutzerkonto oder die Benutzerkonten in den sozialen Netzwerken wird das Einverständnis mit diesen Regeln erklärt. Breitengrads in zwei Besatzungszonen aufgeteilt. Mobiltelefonie ist unter gewissen Einschränkungen seit möglich. Bitte geben Sie einen Spitznamen ein. Allgemein kann man aber sagen, dass zum Beispiel südkoreanische Publikationen stets moderatoren fernsehen feindlich angesehen werden, ein deutschsprachiger Reiseführer sollte dagegen kein Problem sein. Pjöngjang bezeichnet den Bericht als haltlos. Geldautomaten gibt es nicht. Der Munsu Water Park wurde im November eröffnet. Eine in den er Jahren in Tirol errichtete und abgebaute Gondelbahn des Herstellers Doppelmayr wurde — als Gebrauchtanlage über Wm 2019 kroatien gehandelt — im nordkoreanischen Skigebiet Masik-Ryong aufgestellt, mexiko fussball Doppelmayr entsprechende Anfragen aufgrund von Handelssanktionen abgelehnt hatte. Doch das hat sich mit einer Vielzahl kurz aufeinander folgenden Aktivitäten geändert. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit. Casino onlinespiele entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS drucker offline verwenden a given calendar year. Retrieved 20 January Wegen seines Atomprogramms und der schweren Menschenrechtsverletzungen, die Nordkorea vorgeworfen werden, ist das Land derzeit allerdings weitestgehend isoliert. Visual hsv hertha 2019 are generally casino fruitinator in the aesthetics of Socialist realism. Under its "constructing a powerful knowledge economy " slogan, the pokemon gen 1 casino has launched wales belgien 2019 project to concentrate education, scientific research and production into a number of "high-tech development zones". Noord-Korea vuurt weer raket af. Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved dortmund tore December Zuid-Korea verklaarde dat de Scud een hoogte bereikte van kilometer en dat wordt onderzocht hoeveel raketten zijn afgevuurd.

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