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14. us-präsident

14. us-präsident

Alle Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (einschließlich der Franklin Pierce (geb. , † ), – , Demokrat. Der ehemalige US-Präsident George H. W. Bush ist in der Nacht zu Samstag gestorben. Seine letzten Worte richtete er an seinen Sohn. Theodore Roosevelt, US-Präsident (Todestag ). WDR ZeitZeichen | | Min. Sechs Eier und mehrere Steaks vertilgte er jeden.

He submitted his letter of resignation to Princeton on October Lewis , the State Commissioner of Banking and Insurance.

Wilson quickly shed his professorial style for more emboldened speechmaking and presented himself as a full-fledged progressive.

He attributed the success of Wilson and others against the Taft Republicans in in part to the emergent national progressive message enunciated by Theodore Roosevelt after his presidency.

In the election, the Democrats also took control of the General Assembly , though the State Senate remained in Republican hands. When Martine won the seat, Wilson had positioned himself as a new force in the party in the state.

Wilson concentrated on four major state reforms: The Geran bill, drafted by Elmer H. Geran, expanded public participation in primaries for all offices including party officials and delegates; it was thus directed at the power of the political bosses.

It passed the state assembly, albeit by a narrow margin. Free dental clinics were established, a "comprehensive and scientific" poor law was enacted, and the usage of common drinking cups was prohibited.

Trained nursing was also standardized, while contract labor in all reformatories and prisons was abolished, an indeterminate sentence act was passed, and regulation of weights and measures was carried out.

Contract labor in penal institutions was abolished. In addition, a law was passed extending the civil service "to employees of the State, counties, and municipalities," [88] labor by women and children was limited, and oversight of factory working conditions was strengthened.

In March , Wilson committed himself to try for the Democratic nomination for President when he spoke at an Atlanta meeting of the Southern Commercial Congress; afterwards he said: The establishment of rapport with Bryan, the most recent standard-bearer of the party, was a success.

Wilson began a public campaign for the nomination in the South, with a speech to the Pewter Platter Club in Norfolk, Virginia.

While he was received enthusiastically, the speech, reformist in nature, was considered provocative and radical by the conservative audience, making the visit on the whole less than positive.

Wilson managed to maneuver through the complexities of local politics. For example, in Tennessee the Democratic Party was divided over Prohibition ; Wilson was progressive and sober, but not dry, and appealed to both sides.

They united behind him to win the presidential election in the state, but divided over state politics and lost the gubernatorial election. After Norfolk, Wilson then proceeded westward to Kansas, Colorado, California, Oregon and Washington; he favored voting reforms which empowered the populace, such as the initiative , the referendum and the recall excepting judges.

McCombs , who helped Wilson win the governorship, served as convention chairman. The Republicans had set the stage a week earlier at their convention, nominating incumbent William Howard Taft, with Theodore Roosevelt leaving to launch an independent campaign which would split the party vote.

His assistant Tumulty "nearly collapsed" under the strain. The convention deadlocked for over forty ballots—no candidate could reach the two-thirds vote required.

The leading contender was House Speaker Champ Clark , a prominent progressive, strongest in the border states. Publisher William Randolph Hearst , a leader of the left wing of the party, supported Clark.

William Jennings Bryan, the nominee in , and , played a critical role in his declared opposition to any candidate supported by "the financiers of Wall Street".

Marshall as his running mate. Wilson directed Chairman of Finance Henry Morgenthau not to accept contributions from corporations and to prioritize smaller donations from the widest possible quarters of the public, and Morgenthau did this.

In order to further embolden Democrats, especially in New Jersey and New York, Wilson set out to ensure the defeat of local incumbent candidates supported by political machines: He succeeded in both of these efforts and thereby weakened arguments that party control resided with political bosses.

His oratory style was, "right out of my mind as it is working at the time". He maintained towards his primary opponent Roosevelt a tone of humorous detachment, describing the Bull Moose party as "the irregular Republicans, the variegated Republicans".

Wilson shunned the stump speech campaign routine, and initially was reluctant to conduct an extensive campaign tour, but this changed after Roosevelt went on the offensive.

A notably progressive speech in Minneapolis included the following: Brandeis , who promoted the concept that corporate trusts be regulated by the government.

His campaign increased its focus upon the elimination of monopoly in all forms. Wilson also concluded that major reforms in banking and a lower tariff were needed to eliminate the spheres of entrenched interests which distorted the functioning of the free market.

And to make conquest of a new freedom for America". When Roosevelt was wounded by an assassin, Wilson restricted his events to those already scheduled and limited his criticism to the regular Republicans.

It was evident by this time that the Wilson movement would not be checked. Wilson appealed to African Americans and promised to work for them, gaining some support among them in the North at the expense of the Republicans.

But throughout the South, most African Americans had been disenfranchised by actions of state legislatures from to , and were largely excluded from the political system.

After a vacation in Bermuda, Wilson was energized and more aggressive, even combative. He noted the presidency was an office "in which a man must put on his war paint".

In Chicago, he addressed the Commercial Club, including some of the most powerful industrial and financial leaders of the Midwest; he emphasized his progressivism and called his audience to account for their malpractices in business affairs.

In his inaugural address Wilson reiterated his agenda for lower tariffs and banking reform, as well as aggressive trust and labor legislation.

The Wilsons decided against an inaugural ball and instead gathered with family and friends at the White House. His decision-making style was to use solitude in conjunction with prevailing opinions in making decisions.

Wilson pioneered twice-weekly press conferences in the White House. Though they were modestly effective, the president prohibited his being quoted and was particularly indeterminate in his statements.

Burleson brought up the issue of racially segregating workplaces in a cabinet meeting [] and urged the president to establish this policy across the government, in restrooms, cafeterias and work spaces.

Treasury Secretary William G. McAdoo also permitted lower-level officials to racially segregate employees in the workplaces of those departments.

By the end of many departments, including the Navy, had workspaces segregated by screens. Restrooms and cafeterias were also segregated, although no executive order had been issued.

Scott Berg argues that, "For Wilson, segregation remained secondary to the advancement of his New Freedom.

Bridgman, editor of the Congregation and Christian World. When the California state legislature in proposed legislation that excluded Japanese people from owning any land in the state, the Japanese government protested strongly.

He then sent Bryan to California; Bryan was unable to get California to relax the restrictions. Wilson did not use any of the legal remedies available to overturn the California law on the basis that it violated the treaty with Japan.

In implementing economic policy, Wilson had to transcend the sharply opposing policy views of the Southern and agrarian wing of the Democratic Party led by Bryan, and the pro-business Northern wing led by urban political bosses.

With large Democratic majorities in Congress and a healthy economy, Wilson seized the opportunity to achieve his agenda. To facilitate reduction of the tariffs, Wilson garnered unexpected support from a previous rival Oscar Underwood , Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, and Sen.

Simmons , Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. In May , the Underwood Tariff passed in the House by a vote of to 5; it would take a bit longer passing in the Senate—in September—and was signed by Wilson three weeks later.

Wilson had not waited for completion of the tariff legislation to proceed with his next item of reform—banking—which he initiated in June After consulting with Brandeis, Wilson declared the banking system must be "public not private, must be vested in the government itself so that the banks must be the instruments, not the masters, of business.

Aldrich , and the powerful left wing of the Democratic party, led by William Jennings Bryan , who strenuously denounced private banks and Wall Street.

The latter group wanted a government-owned central bank that could print paper money as Congress required.

The compromise, based on the Aldrich Plan but sponsored by Democratic Congressmen Carter Glass and Robert Owen , allowed the private banks to control the 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks , but appeased the agrarians by placing controlling interest in the system in a central board appointed by the president with Senate approval.

Wilson named Paul Warburg and other prominent bankers to direct the new system. While power was supposed to be decentralized, the New York branch dominated the Fed as the "first among equals".

There is not an atom of divided responsibility He is the center of it—the biggest Democrat in the country—the leader and the chief".

Wilson began pushing for legislation which culminated with the Federal Trade Commission Act signed in September The power of this legislation was greater than that of previous anti-trust laws since it dictated accountability of individual corporate officers and clarified guidelines.

This law was considered the " Magna Carta " of labor by Samuel Gompers because it ended union liability antitrust laws [ clarification needed ].

In , under threat of a national railroad strike, Wilson approved legislation that increased wages and cut working hours of railroad employees; there was no strike.

In the summer of Wilson gained repeal of toll exemptions at the Panama Canal for American ships; this was received positively by the international community, as a cessation of past discrimination against foreign commerce.

The measure was considered unpatriotic by U. With the President reaching out to new constituencies, a series of programs was targeted at farmers.

The Smith—Lever Act of created the modern system of agricultural extension agents sponsored by the state agricultural colleges.

The agents taught new techniques to farmers. The Federal Farm Loan Act provided for issuance of low-cost long-term mortgages to farmers.

Child labor was curtailed by the Keating—Owen Act of , but the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in Taft had supported the revolution that brought about the election of Francisco I.

Madero as president of Mexico. Wilsonian idealism was a reason for American intervention in Latin America until the s and s, when moralistic interventions were abandoned in favor of realism.

War between the United States and Mexico was averted through negotiations, and in his reelection campaign for president boasted he had "kept us out of war.

In early Pancho Villa raided Columbus, New Mexico, killing eighteen Americans and causing an enormous nationwide demand for his punishment.

John Pershing and troops into northern Mexico to capture Villa, which they were unable to do even as Pershing continued his pursuit deep into Mexico.

President Carranza then pivoted against the Americans and accused them of a punitive invasion. However, tensions subsided and bilateral negotiations began.

Wilson accorded Carranza diplomatic recognition in April, after Congress declared war on Germany. Mexico was now free to develop its revolution without American pressure.

Later, Wilson selected him to command the American forces being sent to fight in France. In a dispute between Colorado miners and their company , a confrontation resulted in the Ludlow Massacre —the deaths of eight strikers, eleven children and two mothers.

Part owner John D. God has stricken me almost beyond what I can bear". Six months of depression followed for him, though mourning continued.

In January , Wilson emerged from his depression during a spirited speech in Indianapolis where he said, "the trouble with the Republican Party is that it has not had a new idea for thirty years This lasted until March , when he moderated, drew back from the bill and, without its passage, congratulated the Congress for its work in the session just ended—his initial journey through mourning was evident.

After several meetings, Wilson fell in love with her, and in May, he proposed. Galt initially rebuffed him, but Wilson was undeterred and continued the courtship.

The engagement was not made public until October and they were married on December 18, , after a formal year of mourning.

Wilson was the third president to marry while in office. John Tyler had married in and Grover Cleveland in Wilson told the Senate in August when the war began that the United States, "must be impartial in thought as well as in action, must put a curb upon our sentiments as well as upon every transaction that might be construed as a preference of one party to the struggle before another.

Later that month he explained himself privately to his top foreign policy advisor Colonel House , who recalled the episode later:.

I was interested to hear him express as his opinion what I had written him some time ago in one of my letters, to the effect that if Germany won it would change the course of our civilization and make the United States a military nation.

He also spoke of his deep regret, as indeed I did to him in that same letter, that it would check his policy for a better international ethical code.

He felt deeply the destruction of Louvain [in Belgium], and I found him as unsympathetic with the German attitude as is the balance of America.

He said German philosophy was essentially selfish and lacking in spirituality. I did not agree with him. But although the personal feeling of the President was with the Allies, he insisted then and for many months after, that this ought not to affect his political attitude, which he intended should be one of strict neutrality.

He felt that he owed it to the world to prevent the spreading of the conflagration, that he owed it to the country to save it from the horrors of war.

Wilson made numerous offers to mediate and sent Colonel House on diplomatic missions; both sides politely dismissed these overtures.

When Britain declared a blockade of neutral ships carrying contraband goods to Germany, Wilson mildly protested non-lethal British violations of neutral rights; the British knew that it would not be a casus belli for the United States.

The meaning of the policy, dubiously applied to specific incidents, evolved with the policy of neutrality, but ultimately formed the substance of U.

International law required a warning so that passengers and crew could board life boats. No warning was issued and the ship sank in 18 minutes, with a thousand deaths including over Americans.

Wilson said, "There is such a thing as a man being too proud to fight. There is such a thing as a nation being so right that it does not need to convince others by force that it is right".

Many reacted to these remarks with contempt. Secretary of State Bryan, strongly opposed to war, resigned and was replaced by Robert Lansing. Wilson threatened a diplomatic break unless Germany repudiated the action; Germany then gave a written promise: Wilson had won a promise that merchant ships would not be sunk without warning, and most importantly had kept the U.

In March the SS Sussex , an unarmed ferry under the French flag, was torpedoed in the English Channel, and four Americans were counted among the dead; the Germans had flouted the post- Lusitania exchanges.

The president demanded the Germans reject their submarine tactics. This was a clear departure from existing practices—a diplomatic concession from which Germany could only more brazenly withdraw, and regrettably did.

Wilson made a plea for postwar world peace in May ; his speech recited the right of every nation to its sovereignty, territorial integrity and freedom from aggression.

At home the speech was seen as a turning point in policy. In Europe the words were received by the British and the French without comment.

Wilson made his final offer to mediate peace on December 18, As a preliminary, he asked both sides to state their minimum terms necessary for future security.

Edith Wilson enjoyed, as Ellen never had, the crowds and the power as a close collaborator with her husband.

He was presented with a vacancy on the Supreme Court, which he succeeded in filling with a controversial nominee, Louis Brandeis , the first Jewish member of the court.

The president called the parties to a White House summit in August—after two days and no results, Wilson proceeded to settle the issue, using the maximum eight-hour work day as the linchpin.

Wilson was praised for averting a national economic disaster, though the law was received with howls from conservatives denouncing a sellout to the unions and a surrender by Congress to an imperious president.

McCormick , a leading progressive, and Ambassador Henry Morgenthau was recalled from Turkey to manage campaign finances.

Wilson, renominated without opposition, employed his campaign slogan "He kept us out of war", though he never promised unequivocally to stay out of the war.

In his acceptance speech on September 2, , Wilson pointedly warned Germany that submarine warfare resulting in American deaths would not be tolerated, saying "The nation that violates these essential rights must expect to be checked and called to account by direct challenge and resistance.

It at once makes the quarrel in part our own. As the Party platform was drafted, Senator Owen of Oklahoma urged Wilson to take ideas from the Progressive Party platform of "as a means of attaching to our party progressive Republicans who are in sympathy with us in so large a degree.

Wilson, in turn, included in his draft platform a plank that called for all work performed by and for the federal government to provide a minimum wage, an eight-hour day and six-day workweek, health and safety measures, the prohibition of child labour, and his own additions safeguards for female workers and a retirement program.

Theodore Roosevelt commented that the only thing different between Hughes and Wilson was a shave. However, Hughes had to try to hold together a coalition of conservative Taft supporters and progressive Roosevelt partisans, and his campaign never assumed a definite form.

Wilson ran on his record and ignored Hughes, reserving his attacks for Roosevelt. When asked why he did not attack Hughes directly, Wilson told a friend, "Never murder a man who is committing suicide.

Wilson won California by 3, of almost a million votes cast, and New Hampshire by 56 votes. Hughes won Minnesota by votes out of over , In the final count, Wilson had electoral votes vs.

Wilson was able to win by picking up many votes that had gone to Teddy Roosevelt or Eugene V. In December , a month after his reelection, Wilson addressed a conference on social insurance at which he spoke of the issue as "the dominant interest of our own time".

Wilson insisted a league of nations was the solution to ending the war. Early in the German ambassador Johann von Bernstorf informed the U.

The president said, "We are the sincere friends of the German people and earnestly desire to remain at peace with them. We shall not believe they are hostile to us unless or until we are obliged to believe it".

The German government, Wilson said, "means to stir up enemies against us at our very doors". He then also warned that "if there should be disloyalty, it will be dealt with a firm hand of repression.

The world must be made safe for democracy We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make.

How strange it seems to applaud that. The declaration of war by the United States against Germany passed Congress by strong bipartisan majorities on April 4, , with opposition from ethnic German strongholds and remote rural areas in the South.

Wilson refused to make a formal alliance with Britain or France but operated as an "associated" power—an informal ally with military cooperation through the Supreme War Council in London.

March also brought the first of two revolutions in Russia, which impacted the strategic role of the U. Wilson initially rebuffed pleas from the Allies to dedicate military resources to an intervention in Russia against the Bolsheviks , based partially on his experience from attempted intervention in Mexico; nevertheless he ultimately was convinced of the potential benefit and agreed to dispatch a limited force to assist the Allies on the eastern front.

The Germans launched an offensive at Arras which prompted an accelerated deployment of troops by Wilson to the Western front—by August a million American troops had reached France.

The Allies initiated a counter offensive at Somme and by August the Germans had lost the military initiative and an Allied victory was in sight.

In the exchange of notes, Germany agreed to the Fourteen Points being incorporated into the armistice; House then procured agreement from France and Britain, but only after threatening to conclude a unilateral armistice without them.

All of the above, known collectively as the "war cabinet", met weekly with Wilson at the White House. More favorable treatment was extended to those unions that supported the U.

Despite this, appeals to buy war bonds were highly successful. The purchase of wartime bonds had the result of shifting the cost of the war to the taxpayers of the affluent s.

Anarchists, communists , Industrial Workers of the World members, and other antiwar groups were targeted by the Department of Justice ; many of their leaders were arrested for incitement to violence, espionage, or sedition.

In an effort at reform and to shake up his Mobilization program, Wilson removed the chief of the Army Signal Corps and the chairman of the Aircraft Production Board on April 18, With congressional elections approaching, in Wilson made an appeal to the public for the retention of a Democratic majority and this seriously backfired due to its self-serving tone—Republicans successfully picked up majorities in both houses of Congress.

Wilson initiated a secret series of studies named The Inquiry , primarily focused on Europe, and carried out by a group in New York which included geographers, historians and political scientists; the group was directed by Colonel House.

It was the clearest expression of intention made by any of the belligerent nations. The first six points dealt with diplomacy, freedom of the seas and settlement of colonial claims.

Then territorial issues were addressed and the final point, the establishment of an association of nations to guarantee the independence and territorial integrity of all nations—a League of Nations.

The address was translated into many languages for global dissemination. When the time came, Wilson spent six months in Paris for the Peace Conference, thereby becoming the first U.

Wilson took a break from the negotiations and departed February 14, for home, then returned to Paris three weeks later and remained until the conclusion of a treaty in June.

Wilson gave a speech at the Metropolitan Opera House in defense of the League—he was more insistent about it than ever. Heckscher contends that the enduring image of Wilson as a grim, unsmiling and unforgiving figure dates from this visit home during the conference.

Heckscher opines that this was a missed opportunity, even though the Congressional majority had changed. In France he was without the usual control over his message through the media; in fact, the French initiated an aggressive propaganda campaign in the midst of the Conference to affect its outcome.

After his visit home, and while en route back to France, Wilson suffered an illness; the ensuing months brought a decline in health and in power and prestige.

On arrival, it was immediately clear the conference had struggled in his absence—Col. Wilson very reluctantly accepted these amendments, explaining why he later was more inflexible in the Senate treaty negotiations.

Though his symptoms receded within a couple of days, those around him noticed a distinct, lasting deterioration. Wilson was indifferent to the issue, but acceded to strong opposition from Australia and Britain.

For his peace-making efforts, Wilson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. There can seldom have been a statesman of the first rank more incompetent than the President in the agilities of the council chamber.

The chances were less than favorable for ratification of the treaty by a two-thirds vote of the Republican Senate.

Public opinion was mixed, with intense opposition from most Republicans, Germans, and Irish Catholic Democrats.

In numerous meetings with Senators, Wilson discovered opposition had hardened. Despite his weakened physical condition Wilson decided to barnstorm the Western states, scheduling 29 major speeches and many short ones to rally support.

She attempted an intolerable thing, and she must be made to pay for the attempt. Wilson had a series of debilitating strokes and had to cut short his trip on September 26, He became an invalid in the White House, closely monitored by his wife, who insulated him from negative news and downplayed for him the gravity of his condition.

It proved possible to build a majority for the treaty in the Senate, but the two-thirds coalition needed to ratify was insurmountable.

The largest bloc—Lodge and the Republicans—wanted a treaty with reservations, especially on Article X, which empowered the League of Nations to make war without a vote by the United States Congress.

Finally, a bipartisan group of 13 " irreconcilables " opposed a treaty in any form. A plan to form a commission for the purpose was abandoned in the face of Republican control of the Senate, which complicated the appointment of commission members.

Instead, Wilson favored the prompt dismantling of wartime boards and regulatory agencies. A wartime bubble in prices of farmland burst, leaving many farmers deeply in debt after they purchased new land.

There were social tensions as veterans tried to find jobs, and existing workers struggled to protect their jobs, as well as to gain better wages and conditions.

Major strikes in the steel, coal, and meatpacking industries disrupted the economy in As the election of approached, Wilson momentarily imagined that a deadlocked Democratic convention might nominate him for a third term with a campaign focused on the League of Nations.

No one around the President adequately clarified for him that he was too incapacitated, had insufficient support, and that the League defeat was irreversible.

Wilson frequently intervened in Latin American affairs, saying in Additionally, American troops in Haiti—under the command of the federal government—forced the Haitian legislature to elect as president a pro-Western candidate who was favored by Wilson though less popular among the Haitian citizenry.

The occupation lasted until , and was notorious for its brutality against those in the resistance. After Russia left World War I following the Bolshevik Revolution of , the Allies sent troops there to prevent a German or Bolshevik takeover of allied-provided weapons, munitions and other supplies previously shipped as aid to the pre-revolutionary government.

Though specifically instructed not to engage the Bolsheviks, the U. Revolutionaries in Russia resented the United States intrusion.

Robert Maddox wrote, "The immediate effect of the intervention was to prolong a bloody civil war, thereby costing thousands of additional lives and wreaking enormous destruction on an already battered society.

In , Wilson guided American foreign policy to "acquiesce" in the Balfour Declaration without supporting Zionism in an official way. Wilson expressed sympathy for the plight of Jews, especially in Poland and France.

In May , Wilson sent a long-deferred proposal to Congress to have the U. Hovannisian states that Wilson "made all the wrong arguments" for the mandate and focused less on the immediate policy than on how history would judge his actions: In Pueblo, Colorado , on September 25, , he collapsed and never fully recovered.

On October 2, , he suffered a serious stroke, leaving him paralyzed on his left side, along with blindness in his left eye and partial vision in his right eye.

His wife Edith and his aide Joe Tumulty were said to have helped a journalist, Louis Seibold , present a false account of an interview with the President.

He was insulated by his wife, who selected matters for his attention and delegated others to his cabinet. Wilson temporarily resumed a perfunctory attendance at cabinet meetings.

No one close to him, including his wife, his physician, or personal assistant, was willing to admit he was unable to perform the duties of the presidency.

Kennedy had been left in a permanent vegetative state on account of his brain injuries, the 25th Amendment was ratified in to allow the voluntary or forcible replacement of an unable or unwilling incumbent.

Prohibition developed as an unstoppable reform during the war, but Wilson played a minor role in its passage. By January 16, , the Eighteenth Amendment had been ratified by 36 of the 48 states it needed.

Wilson felt Prohibition was unenforceable, but his veto of the Volstead Act was overridden by Congress. But, the consumption of alcohol was never prohibited, and individuals could maintain a private stock that existed before Prohibition went into effect.

Wilson moved his private supply of alcoholic beverages to the wine cellar of his Washington residence after his term of office ended. Speakeasies thrived in cities, towns and rural areas.

The white South was the main center of opposition—only Arkansas allowed women voting rights. Wilson did keep in close touch with the much larger and more moderate suffragists of the National American Woman Suffrage Association.

He continued to hold off until he was sure the Democratic Party in the North was supportive; the referendum in New York State in favor of suffrage proved decisive for him and he now came out strongly in support of national suffrage in a January speech to Congress.

Applauding the vitality of women during the First World War, he asked Congress, "We have made partners of the women in this war Shall we admit them only to a partnership of suffering and sacrifice and toil and not to a partnership of privilege and right?

The most important foreign policy advisor and confidant was "Colonel" Edward M. After the end of his second term in , Wilson and his wife moved from the White House to an elegant town house in the Embassy Row Kalorama section of Washington, D.

Wilson was one of only two U. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt was the first to have served as president of the American Historical Association.

Wilson experienced more success with his return to writing, and he published short works on the international impact of the American Revolution and the rise of totalitarianism.

He also campaigned for Democratic candidates in the elections , and he hinted to friends that he might pursue a third term in the presidential election.

On November 10, , Wilson made a short Armistice Day radio speech from the library of his home, his last national address. The following day he spoke briefly from the front steps to more than 20, well wishers gathered outside the house.

On February 3, , Wilson died at home of a stroke and other heart-related problems at age Wilson left the home and much of the contents to the National Trust for Historic Preservation to be made into a museum honoring her husband.

The rest he left to Edith as a life estate with the provision that at her death, his daughters would divide the estate among themselves.

Wilson was the first Southerner to be elected president since Zachary Taylor in While president of Princeton University , Wilson had discouraged blacks from applying for admission, preferring to keep the peace among white students and alumni.

But in accord with military policy from the Civil War through the Second World War, they segregated them into all-black units with white officers, and kept the great majority out of combat.

Du Bois —a leader of the NAACP who had campaigned for Wilson believing he was a "liberal southerner"—was offered an Army commission in charge of dealing with race relations; DuBois accepted, but he failed his Army physical and did not serve.

The film, while revolutionary in its cinematic technique, glorified the Ku Klux Klan and portrayed blacks as uncouth and uncivilized.

In the villages the Negroes were the office holders, men who knew none of the uses of authority, except its insolences", another claiming that Congressional leaders of that time wanted to "put the white South under the heel of the black South", and a third suggesting that the Klan grew out of "the white men of the South being aroused by a mere instinct of self-preservation".

After seeing the film, Wilson felt betrayed by Dixon, and did not like or endorse the film. Wilson tried to stop its showing during the World War.

In addition, photographs became required for all new federal job applicants, allowing racial discrimination in the merit-based career civil service.

When a delegation of black professionals from the National Independent Political League, led by newspaper editor William Monroe Trotter , protested the discriminatory actions, Wilson told them "segregation is not a humiliation but a benefit, and ought to be so regarded by you gentlemen", explained he was trying to "reduce friction," and that he "sincerely believe[d] it to be in their interest".

Trotter countered by arguing that it was "untenable Wilson rebuked him, stating that if the League wanted to meet with him again, "it must have another spokesman.

Your manner offends me". Trotter was ordered to leave the White House. Employees who were downgraded were transferred to the dead letter office , where they did not interact with the public.

Although Villard subsequently corresponded with and met with Wilson about the issue, no change in policy was forthcoming. The largest denomination of U.

The college has placed a marker on the building, renamed Woodrow Wilson Hall, commemorating the home. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in In , Darryl F.

Zanuck of 20th Century Fox produced a film titled Wilson. Post Office issued the first postage stamp honoring the late president. Woodrow Wilson was also an accomplished author and scholar, having written numerous books and essays.

Wilson tips his hat as he exits the White House on his way to a parade along Pennsylvania Avenue From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Woodrow wilson. For other people named Woodrow Wilson, see Woodrow Wilson disambiguation. Daughters Jessie and Margaret. William Jennings Bryan shifted his support from Clark to Wilson and ushered in the nomination.

Presidency of Woodrow Wilson. United States home front during World War I. Paris Peace Conference, List of federal judges appointed by Woodrow Wilson.

List of memorials to Woodrow Wilson. From Washington to Clinton". Political Science Quarterly Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

Retrieved September 11, The Influence of Environment". Retrieved September 2, The Years of Preparation. Princeton University Press — via Google Books.

March 1, — via Google Books. Woodrow Wilson and the Roots of Modern Liberalism. Retrieved March 22, Retrieved February 27, In Search of Woodrow Wilson: Progressivism, Internationalism, War, and Peace".

Sinclair Company, , p. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education The Academic Years ; Walworth v. The Academic Years , — Retrieved November 1, Gould, Four Hats in the Ring: Archived from the original on September 13, A Companion to Woodrow Wilson.

Through the Electoral College , registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term. This is the only federal election in the United States which is not decided by popular vote.

Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term.

In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Donald Trump of New York is the 45th and current president.

He assumed office on January 20, In July , during the American Revolutionary War , the Thirteen Colonies , acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress , declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states , no longer under British rule.

There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, and the exact powers to be given the central government. Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, , the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power.

It could make its own resolutions, determinations, and regulations, but not any laws, and could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens.

The members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator.

Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the later office of President of the United States, it was a largely ceremonial position without much influence.

In , the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies. With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs.

They witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates , and their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest.

Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in , Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September in Annapolis, Maryland , with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms.

When the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.

When the Constitutional Convention convened in May , the 12 state delegations in attendance Rhode Island did not send delegates brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and executive branches from within their respective state governments.

Most states maintained a weak executive without veto or appointment powers, elected annually by the legislature to a single term only, sharing power with an executive council, and countered by a strong legislature.

The Presentment Clause requires that any bill passed by Congress must be presented to the president before it can become law.

Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options:. The legislation empowered the president to sign any spending bill into law while simultaneously striking certain spending items within the bill, particularly any new spending, any amount of discretionary spending, or any new limited tax benefit.

Congress could then repass that particular item. If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Congress could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses.

City of New York , U. Supreme Court ruled such a legislative alteration of the veto power to be unconstitutional. The power to declare war is constitutionally vested in Congress, but the president has ultimate responsibility for the direction and disposition of the military.

The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the President as Commander in Chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the President wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority.

The amount of military detail handled personally by the President in wartime has varied dramatically. In , Washington used his constitutional powers to assemble 12, militia to quell the Whiskey Rebellion —a conflict in western Pennsylvania involving armed farmers and distillers who refused to pay excise tax on spirits.

According to historian Joseph Ellis , this was the "first and only time a sitting American president led troops in the field", though James Madison briefly took control of artillery units in defense of Washington D.

The present-day operational command of the Armed Forces is delegated to the Department of Defense and is normally exercised through the Secretary of Defense.

The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces Pursuant to the War Powers Resolution , Congress must authorize any troop deployments longer than 60 days, although that process relies on triggering mechanisms that have never been employed, rendering it ineffectual.

The constitution also empowers the President to propose and chiefly negotiate agreements between the United States and other countries.

Such agreements become, upon receiving the advice and consent of the U. Senate by a two-thirds majority vote , become binding with the force of federal law.

General Services Administration , U. The president is the head of the executive branch of the federal government and is constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed".

Presidents make numerous executive branch appointments: Ambassadors , members of the Cabinet , and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the " advice and consent " of a majority of the Senate.

When the Senate is in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue.

Generally, a president may remove executive officials purely at will. To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, presidents have gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the United States.

Additionally, the president possesses the power to manage operations of the federal government through issuing various types of directives, such as presidential proclamation and executive orders.

When the president is lawfully exercising one of the constitutionally conferred presidential responsibilities, the scope of this power is broad.

Moreover, Congress can overturn an executive order though legislation e. The president also has the power to nominate federal judges , including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States.

However, these nominations require Senate confirmation. Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance.

When nominating judges to U. Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office.

Bill Clinton pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office, as is often done just before the end of a second presidential term, but not without controversy.

Historically, two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy.

The first is executive privilege , which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties.

When Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in United States v.

Nixon , U. When President Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v.

Jones , U. These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege is valid, although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined.

Additionally, federal courts have allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but have weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that do not involve the president.

The state secrets privilege allows the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security.

Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 19th century when Thomas Jefferson refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in Totten v.

United States 92 U. Supreme Court until United States v. Therefore, the president cannot directly introduce legislative proposals for consideration in Congress.

For example, the president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress.

The president can further influence the legislative branch through constitutionally or statutorily mandated, periodic reports to Congress.

Additionally, the president may attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.

In the 20th century, critics charged that too many legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Congress had slid into the hands of presidents.

As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Congress.

If both houses cannot agree on a date of adjournment, the president may appoint a date for Congress to adjourn. For example, Franklin Delano Roosevelt convened a special session of Congress immediately after the December 7, , Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor and asked for a declaration of war.

As head of state, the president can fulfill traditions established by previous presidents. William Howard Taft started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in at Griffith Stadium , Washington, D.

Every president since Taft, except for Jimmy Carter , threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the All-Star Game , or the World Series , usually with much fanfare.

The President of the United States has served as the honorary president of the Boy Scouts of America since the founding of the organization.

Other presidential traditions are associated with American holidays. Hayes began in the first White House egg rolling for local children. Truman administration, every Thanksgiving the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House.

Since , when the custom of "pardoning" the turkey was formalized by George H. Bush , the turkey has been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life.

Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally give advice to their successor during the presidential transition. During a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn , a custom begun by John F.

Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves.

One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office". Kennedy was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of PT [71] and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions.

Nelson believes presidents over the past thirty years have worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies".

Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency.

To serve as president, one must:. A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:.

The most common previous profession of U. Nominees participate in nationally televised debates , and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the debates.

Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions. Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives.

The president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms.

As prescribed by the Twelfth Amendment, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Congress.

Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state.

On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals and in Washington D.

They typically vote for the candidates of the party that nominated them. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 30 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged.

The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January.

If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president currently of , that person is declared the winner.

Otherwise, the House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top electoral vote-getters for president.

For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states currently 26 of A 73—73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of necessitated the first.

Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner up would become Vice President.

Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the election. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Held February 9, , this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot.

Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment , the four-year term of office for both the president and vice president begins at noon on January As a result of the date change, the first term —37 of both men had been shortened by 43 days.

Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential oath of office , found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8.

This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution:. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.

Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath.

When the first president, George Washington, announced in his Farewell Address that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two-terms then out" precedent.

Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe.

Grant sought a non-consecutive third term in , [] as did Theodore Roosevelt in though it would have been only his second full term.

In , after leading the nation through the Great Depression , Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the self-imposed precedent.

Four years later, with the U. Bush , and Barack Obama. Both Jimmy Carter and George H. Bush sought a second term, but were defeated.

Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it. Johnson , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F.

Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for " treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in , and Bill Clinton in Both were acquitted by the senate: Johnson by one vote, and Clinton by 17 votes.

Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in ; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.

Succession to or vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred.

Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president , by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.

The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.

Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. Bush once, on July 13, , and George W. Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, , and on July 21, Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet , may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties.

If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.

If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.

The Cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the Secretary of State is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department or the department of which their department is the successor was created.

Those department heads who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession.

No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties.

Political parties had not been anticipated when the U. Constitution was drafted in , nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in — Organized political parties developed in the U.

Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party , while those in opposition joined the emerging Democratic-Republican Party.

Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency.

He was, and remains, the only U. The number of presidents per political party at the time of entry into office are: The White House in Washington, D.

The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in Every president since John Adams in has lived there.

At various times in U. The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food.

A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the s. The primary means of long distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing airliners and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board although any U.

Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight. In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup.

The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C , which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet.

Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.

Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet. Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.

For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.

The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips. The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside.

Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family.

As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.

Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval.

Bush , and all subsequent presidents. Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.

Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.

Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.

Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.

As of February there are four living former U. The most recent former president to die was George H. Bush — , on November 30, The living former presidents, in order of service, are:.

Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.

Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.

There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.

A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries.

Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D.

These gravesites are open to the general public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the political talk radio channel, see P.

For other uses, see President of the United States disambiguation. For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States.

Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Green.

Powers of the President of the United States. Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.

For further information, see List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States. Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency.

United States presidential primary , United States presidential nominating convention , United States presidential election debates , and United States presidential election.

Electoral College United States. United States presidential inauguration. Impeachment in the United States.

List of residences of Presidents of the United States. Transportation of the President of the United States.

Jimmy Carter — Age Bill Clinton — Age

He critically described the United States government, with frequent negative comparisons to Westminster. Critics contended the book was written without the benefit of the author observing any operational aspect of the U.

Congress, and supporters asserted the work was the product of the imagination of a future statesman. The book reflected the greater power of the legislature, relative to the executive, during the post-bellum period.

His third book, entitled Division and Reunion , was published in and considered an outstanding contribution to American historical writing.

If government behaved badly, Wilson queried, "How is the schoolmaster, the nation, to know which boy needs the whipping? These petty barons, some of them not a little powerful, but none of them within reach [of] the full powers of rule, may at will exercise an almost despotic sway within their own shires, and may sometimes threaten to convulse even the realm itself.

In his last scholarly work, Constitutional Government of the United States , Wilson said that the presidency "will be as big as and as influential as the man who occupies it.

Wilson also hoped that the parties could be reorganized along ideological, not geographic, lines. He wrote, "Eight words contain the sum of the present degradation of our political parties: No leaders, no principles; no principles, no parties.

Wilson also wrote that charity efforts should be removed from the private domain and "made the imperative legal duty of the whole," a position which, according to Robert M.

Saunders, seemed to indicate that Wilson "was laying the groundwork for the modern welfare state. Wilson also studied public administration, which he called "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself".

He thought such attitudes represented the requirements of smaller countries and populations. By his day, he thought, "it is getting to be harder to run a constitution than to frame one.

By contrast, he thought the United States required greater compromise because of the diversity of public opinion and the difficulty of forming a majority opinion; thus practical reform of the government was necessarily slow.

Yet Wilson insisted that "administration lies outside the proper sphere of politics" [58] and that "general laws which direct these things to be done are as obviously outside of and above administration.

Such a line of demarcation is intended to focus responsibility for actions taken on the people or persons in charge.

As Wilson put it, "public attention must be easily directed, in each case of good or bad administration, to just the man deserving of praise or blame.

There is no danger in power, if only it be not irresponsible. If it be divided, dealt out in share to many, it is obscured".

Wilson had in the past been offered the presidency at the University of Illinois in , and at the University of Virginia in , both of which he declined.

The Princeton trustees promoted Professor Wilson to president in June , replacing Francis Landey Patton , whom the trustees perceived to be an inefficient administrator.

The curriculum guidelines he developed proved important progressive innovations in the field of higher education.

To emphasize the development of expertise, Wilson instituted academic departments and a system of core requirements. Students were to meet for these in groups of six with preceptors, followed by two years of concentration in a selected major.

Wilson aspired, as he told alumni, "to transform thoughtless boys performing tasks into thinking men". In Wilson awoke to find himself blind in the left eye, the result of a blood clot and hypertension.

Modern medical opinion surmises Wilson had suffered a stroke—he later was diagnosed, as his father had been, with hardening of the arteries.

He took a vacation in Bermuda to convalesce. Their visits together became a regular occurrence on his return. Wilson in his letters home to Ellen openly related these gatherings as well his other social events.

According to biographer August Heckscher , Ellen could sense a problem. It became the topic of frank discussion between them. Wilson historians have not conclusively established there was an affair; but Wilson did on one occasion write a musing in shorthand—on the reverse side of a draft for an editorial: During his time at Princeton, he attempted to curtail the influence of social elites by abolishing the upper-class eating clubs.

He proposed moving the students into colleges, also known as quadrangles. Wilson persisted, saying that giving in "would be to temporize with evil".

Wilson wanted to integrate a proposed graduate school building into the campus core, while West preferred a more distant campus site.

From its outset, Wilson became disenchanted with resistance to his recommendations at Princeton; he ruminated on future political leadership.

Prior to the Democratic presidential nominating convention in , Wilson had dropped hints to some influential players in the Democratic Party of his interest in the ticket.

While he had no real expectations of being placed on the ticket, he did leave instructions that he should not be offered the vice presidential nomination.

He then left for a vacation in Scotland. Party regulars considered his ideas politically as well as geographically detached and fanciful, but the seeds had been sown.

Wilson was elected president of the American Political Science Association in , but soon decided to leave his Princeton post and enter New Jersey state politics.

Senator James Smith, Jr. Ross, and Richard V. The bosses had chosen their man, but his nomination was not a given—many, including organized labor, felt Wilson was an inexperienced newcomer.

He submitted his letter of resignation to Princeton on October Lewis , the State Commissioner of Banking and Insurance. Wilson quickly shed his professorial style for more emboldened speechmaking and presented himself as a full-fledged progressive.

He attributed the success of Wilson and others against the Taft Republicans in in part to the emergent national progressive message enunciated by Theodore Roosevelt after his presidency.

In the election, the Democrats also took control of the General Assembly , though the State Senate remained in Republican hands.

When Martine won the seat, Wilson had positioned himself as a new force in the party in the state. Wilson concentrated on four major state reforms: The Geran bill, drafted by Elmer H.

Geran, expanded public participation in primaries for all offices including party officials and delegates; it was thus directed at the power of the political bosses.

It passed the state assembly, albeit by a narrow margin. Free dental clinics were established, a "comprehensive and scientific" poor law was enacted, and the usage of common drinking cups was prohibited.

Trained nursing was also standardized, while contract labor in all reformatories and prisons was abolished, an indeterminate sentence act was passed, and regulation of weights and measures was carried out.

Contract labor in penal institutions was abolished. In addition, a law was passed extending the civil service "to employees of the State, counties, and municipalities," [88] labor by women and children was limited, and oversight of factory working conditions was strengthened.

In March , Wilson committed himself to try for the Democratic nomination for President when he spoke at an Atlanta meeting of the Southern Commercial Congress; afterwards he said: The establishment of rapport with Bryan, the most recent standard-bearer of the party, was a success.

Wilson began a public campaign for the nomination in the South, with a speech to the Pewter Platter Club in Norfolk, Virginia.

While he was received enthusiastically, the speech, reformist in nature, was considered provocative and radical by the conservative audience, making the visit on the whole less than positive.

Wilson managed to maneuver through the complexities of local politics. For example, in Tennessee the Democratic Party was divided over Prohibition ; Wilson was progressive and sober, but not dry, and appealed to both sides.

They united behind him to win the presidential election in the state, but divided over state politics and lost the gubernatorial election. After Norfolk, Wilson then proceeded westward to Kansas, Colorado, California, Oregon and Washington; he favored voting reforms which empowered the populace, such as the initiative , the referendum and the recall excepting judges.

McCombs , who helped Wilson win the governorship, served as convention chairman. The Republicans had set the stage a week earlier at their convention, nominating incumbent William Howard Taft, with Theodore Roosevelt leaving to launch an independent campaign which would split the party vote.

His assistant Tumulty "nearly collapsed" under the strain. The convention deadlocked for over forty ballots—no candidate could reach the two-thirds vote required.

The leading contender was House Speaker Champ Clark , a prominent progressive, strongest in the border states. Publisher William Randolph Hearst , a leader of the left wing of the party, supported Clark.

William Jennings Bryan, the nominee in , and , played a critical role in his declared opposition to any candidate supported by "the financiers of Wall Street".

Marshall as his running mate. Wilson directed Chairman of Finance Henry Morgenthau not to accept contributions from corporations and to prioritize smaller donations from the widest possible quarters of the public, and Morgenthau did this.

In order to further embolden Democrats, especially in New Jersey and New York, Wilson set out to ensure the defeat of local incumbent candidates supported by political machines: He succeeded in both of these efforts and thereby weakened arguments that party control resided with political bosses.

His oratory style was, "right out of my mind as it is working at the time". He maintained towards his primary opponent Roosevelt a tone of humorous detachment, describing the Bull Moose party as "the irregular Republicans, the variegated Republicans".

Wilson shunned the stump speech campaign routine, and initially was reluctant to conduct an extensive campaign tour, but this changed after Roosevelt went on the offensive.

A notably progressive speech in Minneapolis included the following: Brandeis , who promoted the concept that corporate trusts be regulated by the government.

His campaign increased its focus upon the elimination of monopoly in all forms. Wilson also concluded that major reforms in banking and a lower tariff were needed to eliminate the spheres of entrenched interests which distorted the functioning of the free market.

And to make conquest of a new freedom for America". When Roosevelt was wounded by an assassin, Wilson restricted his events to those already scheduled and limited his criticism to the regular Republicans.

It was evident by this time that the Wilson movement would not be checked. Wilson appealed to African Americans and promised to work for them, gaining some support among them in the North at the expense of the Republicans.

But throughout the South, most African Americans had been disenfranchised by actions of state legislatures from to , and were largely excluded from the political system.

After a vacation in Bermuda, Wilson was energized and more aggressive, even combative. He noted the presidency was an office "in which a man must put on his war paint".

In Chicago, he addressed the Commercial Club, including some of the most powerful industrial and financial leaders of the Midwest; he emphasized his progressivism and called his audience to account for their malpractices in business affairs.

In his inaugural address Wilson reiterated his agenda for lower tariffs and banking reform, as well as aggressive trust and labor legislation.

The Wilsons decided against an inaugural ball and instead gathered with family and friends at the White House.

His decision-making style was to use solitude in conjunction with prevailing opinions in making decisions. Wilson pioneered twice-weekly press conferences in the White House.

Though they were modestly effective, the president prohibited his being quoted and was particularly indeterminate in his statements.

Burleson brought up the issue of racially segregating workplaces in a cabinet meeting [] and urged the president to establish this policy across the government, in restrooms, cafeterias and work spaces.

Treasury Secretary William G. McAdoo also permitted lower-level officials to racially segregate employees in the workplaces of those departments.

By the end of many departments, including the Navy, had workspaces segregated by screens. Restrooms and cafeterias were also segregated, although no executive order had been issued.

Scott Berg argues that, "For Wilson, segregation remained secondary to the advancement of his New Freedom. Bridgman, editor of the Congregation and Christian World.

When the California state legislature in proposed legislation that excluded Japanese people from owning any land in the state, the Japanese government protested strongly.

He then sent Bryan to California; Bryan was unable to get California to relax the restrictions. Wilson did not use any of the legal remedies available to overturn the California law on the basis that it violated the treaty with Japan.

In implementing economic policy, Wilson had to transcend the sharply opposing policy views of the Southern and agrarian wing of the Democratic Party led by Bryan, and the pro-business Northern wing led by urban political bosses.

With large Democratic majorities in Congress and a healthy economy, Wilson seized the opportunity to achieve his agenda. To facilitate reduction of the tariffs, Wilson garnered unexpected support from a previous rival Oscar Underwood , Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, and Sen.

Simmons , Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. In May , the Underwood Tariff passed in the House by a vote of to 5; it would take a bit longer passing in the Senate—in September—and was signed by Wilson three weeks later.

Wilson had not waited for completion of the tariff legislation to proceed with his next item of reform—banking—which he initiated in June After consulting with Brandeis, Wilson declared the banking system must be "public not private, must be vested in the government itself so that the banks must be the instruments, not the masters, of business.

Aldrich , and the powerful left wing of the Democratic party, led by William Jennings Bryan , who strenuously denounced private banks and Wall Street.

The latter group wanted a government-owned central bank that could print paper money as Congress required. The compromise, based on the Aldrich Plan but sponsored by Democratic Congressmen Carter Glass and Robert Owen , allowed the private banks to control the 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks , but appeased the agrarians by placing controlling interest in the system in a central board appointed by the president with Senate approval.

Wilson named Paul Warburg and other prominent bankers to direct the new system. While power was supposed to be decentralized, the New York branch dominated the Fed as the "first among equals".

There is not an atom of divided responsibility He is the center of it—the biggest Democrat in the country—the leader and the chief".

Wilson began pushing for legislation which culminated with the Federal Trade Commission Act signed in September The power of this legislation was greater than that of previous anti-trust laws since it dictated accountability of individual corporate officers and clarified guidelines.

This law was considered the " Magna Carta " of labor by Samuel Gompers because it ended union liability antitrust laws [ clarification needed ].

In , under threat of a national railroad strike, Wilson approved legislation that increased wages and cut working hours of railroad employees; there was no strike.

In the summer of Wilson gained repeal of toll exemptions at the Panama Canal for American ships; this was received positively by the international community, as a cessation of past discrimination against foreign commerce.

The measure was considered unpatriotic by U. With the President reaching out to new constituencies, a series of programs was targeted at farmers.

The Smith—Lever Act of created the modern system of agricultural extension agents sponsored by the state agricultural colleges. The agents taught new techniques to farmers.

The Federal Farm Loan Act provided for issuance of low-cost long-term mortgages to farmers. Child labor was curtailed by the Keating—Owen Act of , but the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in Taft had supported the revolution that brought about the election of Francisco I.

Madero as president of Mexico. Wilsonian idealism was a reason for American intervention in Latin America until the s and s, when moralistic interventions were abandoned in favor of realism.

War between the United States and Mexico was averted through negotiations, and in his reelection campaign for president boasted he had "kept us out of war.

In early Pancho Villa raided Columbus, New Mexico, killing eighteen Americans and causing an enormous nationwide demand for his punishment.

John Pershing and troops into northern Mexico to capture Villa, which they were unable to do even as Pershing continued his pursuit deep into Mexico.

President Carranza then pivoted against the Americans and accused them of a punitive invasion. However, tensions subsided and bilateral negotiations began.

Wilson accorded Carranza diplomatic recognition in April, after Congress declared war on Germany. Mexico was now free to develop its revolution without American pressure.

Later, Wilson selected him to command the American forces being sent to fight in France. In a dispute between Colorado miners and their company , a confrontation resulted in the Ludlow Massacre —the deaths of eight strikers, eleven children and two mothers.

Part owner John D. God has stricken me almost beyond what I can bear". Six months of depression followed for him, though mourning continued.

In January , Wilson emerged from his depression during a spirited speech in Indianapolis where he said, "the trouble with the Republican Party is that it has not had a new idea for thirty years This lasted until March , when he moderated, drew back from the bill and, without its passage, congratulated the Congress for its work in the session just ended—his initial journey through mourning was evident.

After several meetings, Wilson fell in love with her, and in May, he proposed. Galt initially rebuffed him, but Wilson was undeterred and continued the courtship.

The engagement was not made public until October and they were married on December 18, , after a formal year of mourning.

Wilson was the third president to marry while in office. John Tyler had married in and Grover Cleveland in Wilson told the Senate in August when the war began that the United States, "must be impartial in thought as well as in action, must put a curb upon our sentiments as well as upon every transaction that might be construed as a preference of one party to the struggle before another.

Later that month he explained himself privately to his top foreign policy advisor Colonel House , who recalled the episode later:. I was interested to hear him express as his opinion what I had written him some time ago in one of my letters, to the effect that if Germany won it would change the course of our civilization and make the United States a military nation.

He also spoke of his deep regret, as indeed I did to him in that same letter, that it would check his policy for a better international ethical code.

He felt deeply the destruction of Louvain [in Belgium], and I found him as unsympathetic with the German attitude as is the balance of America.

He said German philosophy was essentially selfish and lacking in spirituality. I did not agree with him. But although the personal feeling of the President was with the Allies, he insisted then and for many months after, that this ought not to affect his political attitude, which he intended should be one of strict neutrality.

He felt that he owed it to the world to prevent the spreading of the conflagration, that he owed it to the country to save it from the horrors of war.

Wilson made numerous offers to mediate and sent Colonel House on diplomatic missions; both sides politely dismissed these overtures. When Britain declared a blockade of neutral ships carrying contraband goods to Germany, Wilson mildly protested non-lethal British violations of neutral rights; the British knew that it would not be a casus belli for the United States.

The meaning of the policy, dubiously applied to specific incidents, evolved with the policy of neutrality, but ultimately formed the substance of U.

International law required a warning so that passengers and crew could board life boats. No warning was issued and the ship sank in 18 minutes, with a thousand deaths including over Americans.

Wilson said, "There is such a thing as a man being too proud to fight. There is such a thing as a nation being so right that it does not need to convince others by force that it is right".

Many reacted to these remarks with contempt. Secretary of State Bryan, strongly opposed to war, resigned and was replaced by Robert Lansing.

Wilson threatened a diplomatic break unless Germany repudiated the action; Germany then gave a written promise: Wilson had won a promise that merchant ships would not be sunk without warning, and most importantly had kept the U.

In March the SS Sussex , an unarmed ferry under the French flag, was torpedoed in the English Channel, and four Americans were counted among the dead; the Germans had flouted the post- Lusitania exchanges.

The president demanded the Germans reject their submarine tactics. This was a clear departure from existing practices—a diplomatic concession from which Germany could only more brazenly withdraw, and regrettably did.

Wilson made a plea for postwar world peace in May ; his speech recited the right of every nation to its sovereignty, territorial integrity and freedom from aggression.

At home the speech was seen as a turning point in policy. In Europe the words were received by the British and the French without comment.

Wilson made his final offer to mediate peace on December 18, As a preliminary, he asked both sides to state their minimum terms necessary for future security.

Edith Wilson enjoyed, as Ellen never had, the crowds and the power as a close collaborator with her husband.

He was presented with a vacancy on the Supreme Court, which he succeeded in filling with a controversial nominee, Louis Brandeis , the first Jewish member of the court.

The president called the parties to a White House summit in August—after two days and no results, Wilson proceeded to settle the issue, using the maximum eight-hour work day as the linchpin.

Wilson was praised for averting a national economic disaster, though the law was received with howls from conservatives denouncing a sellout to the unions and a surrender by Congress to an imperious president.

McCormick , a leading progressive, and Ambassador Henry Morgenthau was recalled from Turkey to manage campaign finances.

Wilson, renominated without opposition, employed his campaign slogan "He kept us out of war", though he never promised unequivocally to stay out of the war.

In his acceptance speech on September 2, , Wilson pointedly warned Germany that submarine warfare resulting in American deaths would not be tolerated, saying "The nation that violates these essential rights must expect to be checked and called to account by direct challenge and resistance.

It at once makes the quarrel in part our own. As the Party platform was drafted, Senator Owen of Oklahoma urged Wilson to take ideas from the Progressive Party platform of "as a means of attaching to our party progressive Republicans who are in sympathy with us in so large a degree.

Wilson, in turn, included in his draft platform a plank that called for all work performed by and for the federal government to provide a minimum wage, an eight-hour day and six-day workweek, health and safety measures, the prohibition of child labour, and his own additions safeguards for female workers and a retirement program.

Theodore Roosevelt commented that the only thing different between Hughes and Wilson was a shave. However, Hughes had to try to hold together a coalition of conservative Taft supporters and progressive Roosevelt partisans, and his campaign never assumed a definite form.

Wilson ran on his record and ignored Hughes, reserving his attacks for Roosevelt. When asked why he did not attack Hughes directly, Wilson told a friend, "Never murder a man who is committing suicide.

Wilson won California by 3, of almost a million votes cast, and New Hampshire by 56 votes. Hughes won Minnesota by votes out of over , In the final count, Wilson had electoral votes vs.

Wilson was able to win by picking up many votes that had gone to Teddy Roosevelt or Eugene V. In December , a month after his reelection, Wilson addressed a conference on social insurance at which he spoke of the issue as "the dominant interest of our own time".

Wilson insisted a league of nations was the solution to ending the war. Early in the German ambassador Johann von Bernstorf informed the U. The president said, "We are the sincere friends of the German people and earnestly desire to remain at peace with them.

We shall not believe they are hostile to us unless or until we are obliged to believe it". The German government, Wilson said, "means to stir up enemies against us at our very doors".

He then also warned that "if there should be disloyalty, it will be dealt with a firm hand of repression. The world must be made safe for democracy We have no selfish ends to serve.

We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make.

How strange it seems to applaud that. The declaration of war by the United States against Germany passed Congress by strong bipartisan majorities on April 4, , with opposition from ethnic German strongholds and remote rural areas in the South.

Wilson refused to make a formal alliance with Britain or France but operated as an "associated" power—an informal ally with military cooperation through the Supreme War Council in London.

March also brought the first of two revolutions in Russia, which impacted the strategic role of the U. Wilson initially rebuffed pleas from the Allies to dedicate military resources to an intervention in Russia against the Bolsheviks , based partially on his experience from attempted intervention in Mexico; nevertheless he ultimately was convinced of the potential benefit and agreed to dispatch a limited force to assist the Allies on the eastern front.

The Germans launched an offensive at Arras which prompted an accelerated deployment of troops by Wilson to the Western front—by August a million American troops had reached France.

The Allies initiated a counter offensive at Somme and by August the Germans had lost the military initiative and an Allied victory was in sight.

In the exchange of notes, Germany agreed to the Fourteen Points being incorporated into the armistice; House then procured agreement from France and Britain, but only after threatening to conclude a unilateral armistice without them.

All of the above, known collectively as the "war cabinet", met weekly with Wilson at the White House. More favorable treatment was extended to those unions that supported the U.

Despite this, appeals to buy war bonds were highly successful. The purchase of wartime bonds had the result of shifting the cost of the war to the taxpayers of the affluent s.

Anarchists, communists , Industrial Workers of the World members, and other antiwar groups were targeted by the Department of Justice ; many of their leaders were arrested for incitement to violence, espionage, or sedition.

In an effort at reform and to shake up his Mobilization program, Wilson removed the chief of the Army Signal Corps and the chairman of the Aircraft Production Board on April 18, With congressional elections approaching, in Wilson made an appeal to the public for the retention of a Democratic majority and this seriously backfired due to its self-serving tone—Republicans successfully picked up majorities in both houses of Congress.

Wilson initiated a secret series of studies named The Inquiry , primarily focused on Europe, and carried out by a group in New York which included geographers, historians and political scientists; the group was directed by Colonel House.

It was the clearest expression of intention made by any of the belligerent nations. The first six points dealt with diplomacy, freedom of the seas and settlement of colonial claims.

Then territorial issues were addressed and the final point, the establishment of an association of nations to guarantee the independence and territorial integrity of all nations—a League of Nations.

The address was translated into many languages for global dissemination. When the time came, Wilson spent six months in Paris for the Peace Conference, thereby becoming the first U.

Wilson took a break from the negotiations and departed February 14, for home, then returned to Paris three weeks later and remained until the conclusion of a treaty in June.

Wilson gave a speech at the Metropolitan Opera House in defense of the League—he was more insistent about it than ever. Heckscher contends that the enduring image of Wilson as a grim, unsmiling and unforgiving figure dates from this visit home during the conference.

Heckscher opines that this was a missed opportunity, even though the Congressional majority had changed. In France he was without the usual control over his message through the media; in fact, the French initiated an aggressive propaganda campaign in the midst of the Conference to affect its outcome.

After his visit home, and while en route back to France, Wilson suffered an illness; the ensuing months brought a decline in health and in power and prestige.

On arrival, it was immediately clear the conference had struggled in his absence—Col. Wilson very reluctantly accepted these amendments, explaining why he later was more inflexible in the Senate treaty negotiations.

Though his symptoms receded within a couple of days, those around him noticed a distinct, lasting deterioration. Wilson was indifferent to the issue, but acceded to strong opposition from Australia and Britain.

For his peace-making efforts, Wilson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. There can seldom have been a statesman of the first rank more incompetent than the President in the agilities of the council chamber.

The chances were less than favorable for ratification of the treaty by a two-thirds vote of the Republican Senate. Public opinion was mixed, with intense opposition from most Republicans, Germans, and Irish Catholic Democrats.

In numerous meetings with Senators, Wilson discovered opposition had hardened. Despite his weakened physical condition Wilson decided to barnstorm the Western states, scheduling 29 major speeches and many short ones to rally support.

She attempted an intolerable thing, and she must be made to pay for the attempt. Wilson had a series of debilitating strokes and had to cut short his trip on September 26, He became an invalid in the White House, closely monitored by his wife, who insulated him from negative news and downplayed for him the gravity of his condition.

It proved possible to build a majority for the treaty in the Senate, but the two-thirds coalition needed to ratify was insurmountable.

The largest bloc—Lodge and the Republicans—wanted a treaty with reservations, especially on Article X, which empowered the League of Nations to make war without a vote by the United States Congress.

Finally, a bipartisan group of 13 " irreconcilables " opposed a treaty in any form. A plan to form a commission for the purpose was abandoned in the face of Republican control of the Senate, which complicated the appointment of commission members.

Instead, Wilson favored the prompt dismantling of wartime boards and regulatory agencies. A wartime bubble in prices of farmland burst, leaving many farmers deeply in debt after they purchased new land.

There were social tensions as veterans tried to find jobs, and existing workers struggled to protect their jobs, as well as to gain better wages and conditions.

Major strikes in the steel, coal, and meatpacking industries disrupted the economy in As the election of approached, Wilson momentarily imagined that a deadlocked Democratic convention might nominate him for a third term with a campaign focused on the League of Nations.

No one around the President adequately clarified for him that he was too incapacitated, had insufficient support, and that the League defeat was irreversible.

Wilson frequently intervened in Latin American affairs, saying in Additionally, American troops in Haiti—under the command of the federal government—forced the Haitian legislature to elect as president a pro-Western candidate who was favored by Wilson though less popular among the Haitian citizenry.

The occupation lasted until , and was notorious for its brutality against those in the resistance. After Russia left World War I following the Bolshevik Revolution of , the Allies sent troops there to prevent a German or Bolshevik takeover of allied-provided weapons, munitions and other supplies previously shipped as aid to the pre-revolutionary government.

Though specifically instructed not to engage the Bolsheviks, the U. Revolutionaries in Russia resented the United States intrusion.

Robert Maddox wrote, "The immediate effect of the intervention was to prolong a bloody civil war, thereby costing thousands of additional lives and wreaking enormous destruction on an already battered society.

In , Wilson guided American foreign policy to "acquiesce" in the Balfour Declaration without supporting Zionism in an official way. Wilson expressed sympathy for the plight of Jews, especially in Poland and France.

In May , Wilson sent a long-deferred proposal to Congress to have the U. Hovannisian states that Wilson "made all the wrong arguments" for the mandate and focused less on the immediate policy than on how history would judge his actions: In Pueblo, Colorado , on September 25, , he collapsed and never fully recovered.

On October 2, , he suffered a serious stroke, leaving him paralyzed on his left side, along with blindness in his left eye and partial vision in his right eye.

His wife Edith and his aide Joe Tumulty were said to have helped a journalist, Louis Seibold , present a false account of an interview with the President.

He was insulated by his wife, who selected matters for his attention and delegated others to his cabinet. Wilson temporarily resumed a perfunctory attendance at cabinet meetings.

No one close to him, including his wife, his physician, or personal assistant, was willing to admit he was unable to perform the duties of the presidency.

Kennedy had been left in a permanent vegetative state on account of his brain injuries, the 25th Amendment was ratified in to allow the voluntary or forcible replacement of an unable or unwilling incumbent.

Prohibition developed as an unstoppable reform during the war, but Wilson played a minor role in its passage. By January 16, , the Eighteenth Amendment had been ratified by 36 of the 48 states it needed.

Wilson felt Prohibition was unenforceable, but his veto of the Volstead Act was overridden by Congress. But, the consumption of alcohol was never prohibited, and individuals could maintain a private stock that existed before Prohibition went into effect.

Wilson moved his private supply of alcoholic beverages to the wine cellar of his Washington residence after his term of office ended.

Speakeasies thrived in cities, towns and rural areas. The white South was the main center of opposition—only Arkansas allowed women voting rights.

Wilson did keep in close touch with the much larger and more moderate suffragists of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. He continued to hold off until he was sure the Democratic Party in the North was supportive; the referendum in New York State in favor of suffrage proved decisive for him and he now came out strongly in support of national suffrage in a January speech to Congress.

Applauding the vitality of women during the First World War, he asked Congress, "We have made partners of the women in this war Shall we admit them only to a partnership of suffering and sacrifice and toil and not to a partnership of privilege and right?

The most important foreign policy advisor and confidant was "Colonel" Edward M. After the end of his second term in , Wilson and his wife moved from the White House to an elegant town house in the Embassy Row Kalorama section of Washington, D.

Wilson was one of only two U. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt was the first to have served as president of the American Historical Association.

Wilson experienced more success with his return to writing, and he published short works on the international impact of the American Revolution and the rise of totalitarianism.

He also campaigned for Democratic candidates in the elections , and he hinted to friends that he might pursue a third term in the presidential election.

On November 10, , Wilson made a short Armistice Day radio speech from the library of his home, his last national address. The following day he spoke briefly from the front steps to more than 20, well wishers gathered outside the house.

On February 3, , Wilson died at home of a stroke and other heart-related problems at age Wilson left the home and much of the contents to the National Trust for Historic Preservation to be made into a museum honoring her husband.

The rest he left to Edith as a life estate with the provision that at her death, his daughters would divide the estate among themselves.

Wilson was the first Southerner to be elected president since Zachary Taylor in While president of Princeton University , Wilson had discouraged blacks from applying for admission, preferring to keep the peace among white students and alumni.

But in accord with military policy from the Civil War through the Second World War, they segregated them into all-black units with white officers, and kept the great majority out of combat.

Du Bois —a leader of the NAACP who had campaigned for Wilson believing he was a "liberal southerner"—was offered an Army commission in charge of dealing with race relations; DuBois accepted, but he failed his Army physical and did not serve.

The film, while revolutionary in its cinematic technique, glorified the Ku Klux Klan and portrayed blacks as uncouth and uncivilized.

In the villages the Negroes were the office holders, men who knew none of the uses of authority, except its insolences", another claiming that Congressional leaders of that time wanted to "put the white South under the heel of the black South", and a third suggesting that the Klan grew out of "the white men of the South being aroused by a mere instinct of self-preservation".

After seeing the film, Wilson felt betrayed by Dixon, and did not like or endorse the film. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May , the 12 state delegations in attendance Rhode Island did not send delegates brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and executive branches from within their respective state governments.

Most states maintained a weak executive without veto or appointment powers, elected annually by the legislature to a single term only, sharing power with an executive council, and countered by a strong legislature.

The Presentment Clause requires that any bill passed by Congress must be presented to the president before it can become law.

Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options:. The legislation empowered the president to sign any spending bill into law while simultaneously striking certain spending items within the bill, particularly any new spending, any amount of discretionary spending, or any new limited tax benefit.

Congress could then repass that particular item. If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Congress could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses.

City of New York , U. Supreme Court ruled such a legislative alteration of the veto power to be unconstitutional. The power to declare war is constitutionally vested in Congress, but the president has ultimate responsibility for the direction and disposition of the military.

The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the President as Commander in Chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the President wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority.

The amount of military detail handled personally by the President in wartime has varied dramatically. In , Washington used his constitutional powers to assemble 12, militia to quell the Whiskey Rebellion —a conflict in western Pennsylvania involving armed farmers and distillers who refused to pay excise tax on spirits.

According to historian Joseph Ellis , this was the "first and only time a sitting American president led troops in the field", though James Madison briefly took control of artillery units in defense of Washington D.

The present-day operational command of the Armed Forces is delegated to the Department of Defense and is normally exercised through the Secretary of Defense.

The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces Pursuant to the War Powers Resolution , Congress must authorize any troop deployments longer than 60 days, although that process relies on triggering mechanisms that have never been employed, rendering it ineffectual.

The constitution also empowers the President to propose and chiefly negotiate agreements between the United States and other countries.

Such agreements become, upon receiving the advice and consent of the U. Senate by a two-thirds majority vote , become binding with the force of federal law.

General Services Administration , U. The president is the head of the executive branch of the federal government and is constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed".

Presidents make numerous executive branch appointments: Ambassadors , members of the Cabinet , and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the " advice and consent " of a majority of the Senate.

When the Senate is in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue.

Generally, a president may remove executive officials purely at will. To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, presidents have gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the United States.

Additionally, the president possesses the power to manage operations of the federal government through issuing various types of directives, such as presidential proclamation and executive orders.

When the president is lawfully exercising one of the constitutionally conferred presidential responsibilities, the scope of this power is broad.

Moreover, Congress can overturn an executive order though legislation e. The president also has the power to nominate federal judges , including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States.

However, these nominations require Senate confirmation. Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance.

When nominating judges to U. Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office.

Bill Clinton pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office, as is often done just before the end of a second presidential term, but not without controversy.

Historically, two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy.

The first is executive privilege , which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties.

When Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in United States v.

Nixon , U. When President Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v.

Jones , U. These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege is valid, although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined.

Additionally, federal courts have allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but have weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that do not involve the president.

The state secrets privilege allows the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security.

Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 19th century when Thomas Jefferson refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in Totten v.

United States 92 U. Supreme Court until United States v. Therefore, the president cannot directly introduce legislative proposals for consideration in Congress.

For example, the president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress.

The president can further influence the legislative branch through constitutionally or statutorily mandated, periodic reports to Congress.

Additionally, the president may attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.

In the 20th century, critics charged that too many legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Congress had slid into the hands of presidents.

As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Congress.

If both houses cannot agree on a date of adjournment, the president may appoint a date for Congress to adjourn.

For example, Franklin Delano Roosevelt convened a special session of Congress immediately after the December 7, , Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor and asked for a declaration of war.

As head of state, the president can fulfill traditions established by previous presidents. William Howard Taft started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in at Griffith Stadium , Washington, D.

Every president since Taft, except for Jimmy Carter , threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the All-Star Game , or the World Series , usually with much fanfare.

The President of the United States has served as the honorary president of the Boy Scouts of America since the founding of the organization.

Other presidential traditions are associated with American holidays. Hayes began in the first White House egg rolling for local children.

Truman administration, every Thanksgiving the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House.

Since , when the custom of "pardoning" the turkey was formalized by George H. Bush , the turkey has been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life.

Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally give advice to their successor during the presidential transition.

During a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn , a custom begun by John F.

Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves.

One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office". Kennedy was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of PT [71] and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions.

Nelson believes presidents over the past thirty years have worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies".

Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency. To serve as president, one must:.

A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:.

The most common previous profession of U. Nominees participate in nationally televised debates , and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the debates.

Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions. Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives.

The president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms.

As prescribed by the Twelfth Amendment, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Congress.

Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state.

On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals and in Washington D.

They typically vote for the candidates of the party that nominated them. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 30 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged.

The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January.

If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president currently of , that person is declared the winner.

Otherwise, the House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top electoral vote-getters for president.

For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states currently 26 of A 73—73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of necessitated the first.

Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner up would become Vice President.

Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the election. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Held February 9, , this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot.

Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment , the four-year term of office for both the president and vice president begins at noon on January As a result of the date change, the first term —37 of both men had been shortened by 43 days.

Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential oath of office , found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8.

This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution:. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.

Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath.

When the first president, George Washington, announced in his Farewell Address that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two-terms then out" precedent.

Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe.

Grant sought a non-consecutive third term in , [] as did Theodore Roosevelt in though it would have been only his second full term.

In , after leading the nation through the Great Depression , Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the self-imposed precedent.

Four years later, with the U. Bush , and Barack Obama. Both Jimmy Carter and George H. Bush sought a second term, but were defeated.

Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it. Johnson , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F.

Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for " treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in , and Bill Clinton in Both were acquitted by the senate: Johnson by one vote, and Clinton by 17 votes.

Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in ; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.

Succession to or vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred.

Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president , by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.

The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.

Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. Bush once, on July 13, , and George W.

Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, , and on July 21, Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet , may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties.

If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.

If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.

The Cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the Secretary of State is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department or the department of which their department is the successor was created.

Those department heads who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession.

No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties.

Political parties had not been anticipated when the U. Constitution was drafted in , nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in — Organized political parties developed in the U.

Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party , while those in opposition joined the emerging Democratic-Republican Party.

Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency.

He was, and remains, the only U. The number of presidents per political party at the time of entry into office are: The White House in Washington, D.

The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in Every president since John Adams in has lived there. At various times in U.

The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food.

A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the s. The primary means of long distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing airliners and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board although any U.

Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight.

In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup.

The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C , which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet.

Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.

Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet. Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.

For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.

The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips.

The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside. Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard.

Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family. As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.

Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval.

Bush , and all subsequent presidents. Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office.

Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.

Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.

Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.

Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.

As of February there are four living former U. The most recent former president to die was George H. Bush — , on November 30, The living former presidents, in order of service, are:.

Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.

Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.

There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.

A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries.

Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D.

These gravesites are open to the general public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the political talk radio channel, see P. For other uses, see President of the United States disambiguation.

For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States. Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections.

Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Green. Powers of the President of the United States. Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.

For further information, see List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States. Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency.

United States presidential primary , United States presidential nominating convention , United States presidential election debates , and United States presidential election.

Electoral College United States. United States presidential inauguration. Impeachment in the United States.

List of residences of Presidents of the United States. Transportation of the President of the United States. Jimmy Carter — Age Bill Clinton — Age Bush — Age Barack Obama — Age Government of the United States portal.

Phillips for the rapid transmission of press reports by telegraph. Truman ; Lyndon B. Johnson ; and Gerald Ford Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner.

Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party. The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved September 4, Retrieved November 1, Retrieved July 19, Retrieved November 9, The People Debate the Constitution, — New York, New York: A forgotten huge day in American history".

14. us-präsident - apologise, but

Speziell nach dem Tode seiner Frau nahmen seine Alkoholprobleme zu. Doch blieb das Problem der gleichen Bürgerrechte für Afroamerikaner , für deren Gleichberechtigung Lincoln plädierte, für ein weiteres Jahrhundert bis zur Amtszeit von Lyndon B. Initiativen Zu wenig Kita-Plätze: Im November wurde Obama für eine zweite Amtszeit bestätigt. Verfassungszusatz von dieses Amt nur durch die Volkswahl im Turnus von vier Jahren besetzt werden konnte. Die Gewinner der Vorwahlen, also die letztlichen Präsidentschaftskandidaten, werden zu den sogenannten Parteitagen gekürt. Jetzt ist frühere amerikanische Präsident George H. Das ist ein Gremium, welches nur einmal alle vier Jahre zusammenkommt, um den Präsidenten und seinen Stellvertreter zu wählen. Im Jahr nominierte ihn seine Partei als Kompromisskandidaten für die anstehende Präsidentschaftswahl , die er dann gegen den Whig-Bewerber Winfield Scott klar gewann. Seit Monaten wird überall davon berichtet. Er war der erste Präsident, der den Präsidenteneid nicht schwor, sondern ihn an Eides statt bekräftigte. Immer mehr Eltern gründen eigene Kita. Etwa 83 Millionen Einwohner. Aber wie läuft die Wahl eigentlich genau ab? Er wurde als erster Präsident nach Abschaffung des Zensuswahlrechts gewählt. Monroe war der letzte Präsident, der die amerikanische Revolution noch aus eigenem Erleben kannte. Nachdem ein Kompromiss in Fragen der Sklavenhaltung gefunden worden war, wurde auch Missouri Bundesstaat. Er beginnt schon zwei Jahre vor der Wahl damit, dass meist mehrere Politiker bekannt geben, dass sie sich zur Wahl aufstellen lassen möchten. Bereits beim ersten Wahlgang auf dem demokratischen Parteitag erreichte er weniger Stimmen als Buchanan. In einem zweiten Schritt muss der Präsident noch offiziell gewählt werden. Sein Vizepräsident war William R. Er übernahm das Amt während einer globalen Finanzkrise und setzte als eine seiner ersten Amtshandlungen hsv heute ergebnis Konjunkturprogramm mit einem Volumen von Milliarden Dollar durch. In der Folge verloren die Föderalisten, die sich mit einem Teil der Bevölkerung zunächst entschieden huuuge casino lucky patcher den Krieg positioniert hatten, ihren letzten Rückhalt als nationale Sport1 darts live. Konsequenzen der umstrittenen Wahl waren das wegweisende Urteil zur Cala millor erfahrungen casino butz der Verfassungszusatz zur Präsidentschaftswahl. Vor Jahren, bvb euroleague live Die gesamte Familie sei zutiefst mobile legends account wechseln für dessen Leben. Nachdem sich auf dem demokratischen Nominierungsparteitag im Juni kein Bewerber ausreichend Stimmen sichern konnte, online party casino zum Kandidaten für die im November des Jahres anstehende Präsidentschaftswahl gekürt zu werden, wurde Pierce als Kompromisskandidat aufgestellt. Eine Ausnahme gilt bezüglich Grover Clevelandder als bisher einziger Präsident zwei Amtszeiten absolvierte, die nicht direkt aufeinander folgten. In der Öffentlichkeit wurde er zu Unrecht häufig als Monarchist dargestellt, was ihm und seiner Partei entscheidend schadete. Wie seine beiden prince value bet Vorgänger steht auch Hoover für eine Wirtschaftspolitik nach dem Laissez-faire -Prinzip. Neben dem erfolgreich verlaufenen Gadsden-Kaufmit dem Teilgebiete von Arizona und New Mexico erworben wurden, und dem misslungenen Plan, Kuba zu kaufen oder gewaltsam zu erobern, war die Amtszeit vor allem durch persönliche Probleme gekennzeichnet. America has lost a patriot and humble sunnyplayer bonus code in George Herbert Walker Bush. Verfassungszusatz von dieses Amt nur durch die Volkswahl im Turnus wahretabelle vier Jahren besetzt werden konnte.

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14. Us-präsident Video

VIP-Eskorte US-Präsident Donald Trump am 06.07.17 beim G20-Gipfel in Hamburg

5 Responses

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